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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/07 20:48]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
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 //perfectum// in [u-wis]:  //perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
-    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //; \\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /isor /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”, īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //; \\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//\\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//\\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//\\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//\\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //\\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //\\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//\\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //\\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
  
 +“the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 1953, p. 208).
  
-solu-ō “moose, pay”, solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/[solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectumcad-ō “fall”, ce-cid-ī, cā-sum; caed-ō “cut”, ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum; can-ō “sing”, ce-cin-ī, can-tum; scind-ō “tear”, scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”, tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum; at-ting-ō “touch”, at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” , conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”, pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”, posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”, prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”, prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+//perfectum// in [e:-wis]: 
  
 +    * //cern-ō// “decree”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“, //consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//; \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum//; \\ //stern-ō//, //strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō// “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//. \\    
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /is/ or /…is/:
-. with a lengthening perfectum+
-</code>;+
  
 +    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//); \\ //īc-ō// “hit”, //īc-ī, ic-tum//; \\ //-cend-ō// “kindle”, //-cend-ī,-censum//; \\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//; \\  //cūd-ō// “forge”, //-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand-ō// “chew”, //mand-ī, man-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//; \\ //prehend-ō// “seize”, //prehend-ī, prehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd-ō// “settle”, //sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd-ō// “whiz”, //strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck », //uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum//; \\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”; \\ //uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
  
-ag-ō “drive”, ēg-ī, āc-tum. ed-ō “eat”, ēd-ī, ē-sum; leg-ō “gather”, lēg-ī, lec-tum; em-ō “buy”, ēm-ī, emp-tum. cōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō), cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum; relinqu-ō  “leave, abandon”, relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum; collig-ō “gather together, collect”, collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum. 
  
 +    * //solu-ō// “moose, pay”, //solu-ī, solū-tum//;  [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; \\ //uolu-ō// “turn”, //uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow », //consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// . 
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//:  
-         CSome irregularities +  
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation+    * //cad-ō// “fall”, //ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//\\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting-ō// “touch”, //at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-ger-ō “bear, carry”,  gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/);   quer-or “complain”, quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); ūr-ō “burn”, ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); hauri-ō “drain”, haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:/ and /haus/). 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.5. with a lengthening //perfectum//:
  
-nōsc-ō “know”nosce-re, nōu-ī, -tum (= /nōskand //); cognosc-ō “get to know”cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tumignosc-ō  “forgive”ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum (= /kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”adolē-u-īadultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāskand /pā/);+    * //ag// “drive”//ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed// “eat”//ēd-ī, ē-sum//\\ //leg// “gather”//lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em// “buy”//ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-recoēg-ī, coac-tum//; \\ //relinqu//  “leaveabandon”//relinque -rerelīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig// “gather togethercollect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
  
  
-<code> +    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
-  • Verbs with a suppletive stem: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
  
-toll-ō “pick up”tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum. fer-ō “carry”fer-s, tul-ī, lātum.+    * //ger// “bearcarry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/); \\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); \\ //ūr// “burn”//ūre-re, us-sus-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); \\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
  
 +    * //nōsc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/); \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/); \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/); \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
  
-<code> 
-      • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of Perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
  
-coep-ī “I began”coep-is-tīcoep-is-se; memin-ī “I remember”memin-is-memin-is-se; ōd-ī “I hate”ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se.+    * //toll-ō// “pick up”//tolle-resustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”//fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
  
  
-• Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme: aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m ; sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-m; fīd-ō “trust”, fīde-re, fī-s-us sum. 
  
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//\\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” merē-remer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”merē-meri-t-us su-m  «mériter».+    * • Semi-deponent verbswhich always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 +  
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”//au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”//gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”//soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
  
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +