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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/07 19:52]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
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Ligne 1412: Ligne 1412:
 stem ending with a voiced velar:  stem ending with a voiced velar: 
  
-    * //ang-ō// “choke”, //ānx-ī, ─//; \\ //cing-ō// “bind”, //cinx-ī, cinc-tum//; \\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//; \\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//; \\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//; \\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//; \\   //frig-ō// “fry”, //frīx-ī, frīc-tum//; \\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//; \\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//; \\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//; \\  //plang-ō// “beat”, //plānx-ī, plānc-tum//; \\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//; \\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum//; \\ //sūg-ō// “suck”, //sūx-ī, sūc-tum//; \\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum//; \\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//; \\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//; \\ //merg-ō// “plunge”, //mer-s-ī, mer-sum//; \\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//; \\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//; +    * //ang-ō// “choke”, //ānx-ī, ─//; \\ //cing-ō// “bind”, //cinx-ī, cinc-tum//; \\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//; \\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//; \\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//; \\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//; \\   //frig-ō// “fry”, //frīx-ī, frīc-tum//; \\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//; \\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//; \\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//; \\  //plang-ō// “beat”, //plānx-ī, plānc-tum//; \\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//; \\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum// ; \\ //sūg-ō// “suck”, //sūx-ī, sūc-tum//; \\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum//; \\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//; \\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//; \\ //merg-ō// “plunge”, //mer-s-ī, mer-sum//; \\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//; \\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//; 
  
 stem ending with  a labiovelar:  stem ending with  a labiovelar: 
Ligne 1424: Ligne 1424:
 stem ending with a nasal:    stem ending with a nasal:   
  
-    * //cōm-ō// “comb, deck”, //cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//; \\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//; \\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”; \\ //prōm-ō// “bring out”, //prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//; \\ //sūm-ō// “take”, //sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum//. \\ //temn-ō// “despise”, //temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu-ō// “flow”, //flūx-ī, flux-um//; \\ //stru-ō// “build”, //strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah-ō// “drag”, //trāx-ī, trāc-tum//; ueh-ō “draw”, uēx-ī, uec-tum.  uīu-ō “live”, uīx-ī, uīc-tum.  ger-ō “carry”, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/);  ūr-ō “burn”, us-s-ī, us-tum. b. with -uis- or  only -is- Perfectum? acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum “sharpen”; the present acu-ō  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:(cf. acū-tum). As for the perfect acu-īis it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  argu-ō “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), argu-ī, argū-tum; imbu-ō “give a taste of”, imbu-ī, imbū-tum;  lu-ō “wash”, lu-ī, -lū-tum; metu-ō “fear”, metu-ī, metū-tum; minu-ō “lessen”, minu-ī, minū-tum; statu-ō “establish”, statu-ī, statū-tum; su-ō “sew”, su-ī, sū-tum; (ex)u-ō “put off”, u-ī, ū-tum;  tribu-ō “assign”, tribu-ī, tribū-tum; (con)gru-ō  “agree”, gru-ī, ─  ; -nu-ō “nod”, -nu-ī, ─ ; spu-ō “spit”, spu-ī, ─ ; sternu-ō  “sneeze”, sternu-ī, ─ ; ru-ō “fall”, ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us), /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is rutum and not %%*%%rūtum. Perfectum in [i:-wis]: arcess-ō “summon”, arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum; capess-ō “undertake”, capessī-u-ī, ─ ;  incess-ō “attack”, incessī-u-ī, ─ ; lacess-ō “provoke”, lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum; pet-ō “seek to obtain”, petī-u-ī or peti-ī, petī-tum; quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum; rud-ō “bray”, rudī-u-ī, ─ ; scisc-ō “decree”, scī-u-ī, scī-tum;  ter-ō “rub”, trī-u-ī, trī-tum. sin-ō “permit”, sī-u-ī, si-tum. perfectum in [u-wis]: al-ō “nourish”, alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum); col-ō “dwell, till”, colu-ī, cultum; compēsc-ō “restrain”, compēscu-ī, ─ ; cōnsul-ō “consult”, cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum; -cumb-ō “lie down”, -cubu-ī, cubi-tum; deps-ō “knead”, dessu-ī, deps-tum; frem-ō “roar”, fremu-ī, ─ ; gem-ō “groan”, gemu-ī, ─ ; gign-ō “beget”, genu-ī, geni-tum; met-ō “reap”, messu-ī, -messum; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /isor /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”, īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+    * //cōm-ō// “comb, deck”, //cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//; \\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//; \\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”; \\ //prōm-ō// “bring out”, //prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//; \\ //sūm-ō// “take”, //sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum//. \\ //temn-ō// “despise”, //temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu-ō// “flow”, //flūx-ī, flux-um//; \\ //stru-ō// “build”, //strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah-ō// “drag”, //trāx-ī, trāc-tum//; \\ //ueh-ō// “draw”, //uēx-ī, uec-tum//\\  //uīu-ō// “live”, //uīx-ī, uīc-tum//\\  //ger-ō// “carry”, //ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/); \\  //ūr-ō// “burn”, //us-s-ī, us-tum//.
  
  
-solu-ō “moose, pay”, solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectum: cad-ō “fall”, ce-cid-ī, cā-sum; caed-ō “cut”, ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum; can-ō “sing”, ce-cin-ī, can-tum; scind-ō “tear”, scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”, tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum; at-ting-ō “touch”, at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” , conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”, pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”, posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”, prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”, prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+    * 7.11.2.2.2. with //-uis-// or  only //-is-// //Perfectum//? 
  
 +    * //acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum// “sharpen”; the present //acu-ō//  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf. //acū-tum//). As for the perfect //acu-ī//, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  
 +   
 +    * //argu-ō// “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), //argu-ī, argū-tum//; \\ //imbu-ō// “give a taste of”, //imbu-ī, imbū-tum//; \\ //lu-ō// “wash”, //lu-ī, -lū-tum//; \\ //metu-ō// “fear”, //metu-ī, metū-tum//; \\ //minu-ō// “lessen”, //minu-ī, minū-tum//; \\ //statu-ō// “establish”, //statu-ī, statū-tum//; \\ //su-ō// “sew”, //su-ī, sū-tum//; \\ //(ex)u-ō// “put off”, //u-ī, ū-tum//; \\ //tribu-ō// “assign”, //tribu-ī, tribū-tum//; \\ //(con)gru-ō//  “agree”, //gru-ī, ─  //; \\ //-nu-ō// “nod”, //-nu-ī, ─ //; \\ //spu-ō// “spit”, //spu-ī, ─ //; \\ //sternu-ō//  “sneeze”, //sternu-ī, ─ //; \\ //ru-ō// “fall”, //ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us)//, /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is //rutum// and not //%%*%%rūtum//. 
 + 
 +//Perfectum// in [i:-wis]: 
  
-<;code>; +    * //arcess-ō// “summon”, //arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum//\\ //capess-ō// “undertake”, //capessī-u-ī, ─ //\\ //incess-ō// “attack”, //incessī-u-ī, ─ //\\ //lacess-ō// “provoke”, //lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum//; \\ //pet-ō// “seek to obtain”, //petī-u-ī// or //peti-ī, petī-tum//; \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī// or //quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum//; \\ //rud-ō// “bray”, //rudī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //scisc-ō// “decree”, //scī-u-ī, scī-tum//; \\  //ter-ō// “rub”, //trī-u-ī, trī-tum//. \\ //sin-ō// “permit”, //sī-u-ī, si-tum//.  
-e . with a lengthening perfectum: +   
-<;/code>;+//perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
 +    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //; \\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//; \\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//; \\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//; \\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //; \\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //; \\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//; \\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
  
-ag-ō “drive”ēg-īāc-tum. ed-ō “eat”ēd-īē-sum; leg-ō “gather”lēg-īlec-tum; em-ō “buy”, ēm-ī, emp-tumcōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō), cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum; relinqu-ō  “leave, abandon”, relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum; collig-ō “gather together, collect”, collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum.+“the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adgeit replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduīleguīreguī instead of arsī¸ lēgīrēxī” (Ernout1953p208).
  
 +//perfectum// in [e:-wis]: 
  
-<;code>; +    * //cern-ō// “decree”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//\\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“, //consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//\\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus//\\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum//\\ //stern-ō//, //strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō// “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//. \\    
-         CSome irregularities +
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation: +
-<;/code>;+
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//; and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /is/ or /…is/:
  
-ger-ō “bearcarry”,  gere-reges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ gerand /ges/)  quer-or “complain”quere-risquer-ī, ques-t-us su-(/kweri ~ kwerand /kwes+ Passive); ūr-ō “burn”ūre-reus-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūrand /us/); quaer-ō “seek”quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (/kwairi ~ kwairand /kwaisi:/)hauri-ō “drain”haurī-re “drain”hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).+    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//); \\ //īc// “hit”//īc-īic-tum//; \\ //-cend-ō// “kindle”, //-cend-ī,-censum//; \\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//; \\  //cūd-ō// “forge”//-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand-ō// “chew”//mand-īman-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//\\ //prehend// “seize”//prehend-īprehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd// “settle”//sīd-ī (-sēd), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd-ō// “whiz”, //strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck »//uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum//; \\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”\\ //uert-ō, uert-īuer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
  
  
-nōsc-ō “know”nosce-renōu-ī, -tum (= /nōskand /nō/)cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō  “forgive”ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum (= /kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāskand /pā/);+    * //solu// “moosepay”//solu-ī, solū-tum//;  [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/[solw--i:] and [solu:-tus]phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; \\ //uolu// “turn”//uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow », //consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//: 
 + 
 +    * //cad-ō// “fall”, //ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//; \\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting-ō// “touch”, //at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
  
-<code> 
-  • Verbs with a suppletive stem: 
-</code> 
  
  
-toll-ō “pick up”, tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tumfer-ō “carry”, fer-s, tul-ī, lātum.+    * 7.11.2.2.5. with a lengthening //perfectum//:
  
 +    * //ag-ō// “drive”, //ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed-ō// “eat”, //ēd-ī, ē-sum//; \\ //leg-ō// “gather”, //lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em-ō// “buy”, //ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum//; \\ //relinqu-ō//  “leave, abandon”, //relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig-ō// “gather together, collect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
  
-<code> 
-      • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of Perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
  
-coep-ī “I began”, coep-is-tī, coep-is-se; memin-ī “I remember”, memin-is-tī, memin-is-se; ōd-ī “I hate”, ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se.+    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
  
 +    * //ger-ō// “bear, carry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/); \\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); \\ //ūr-ō// “burn”, //ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); \\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
  
-• Semi-deponent verbswhich always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme: aude-ō “dare”au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”gāuī-s-us su-sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-mfīd-ō “trust”fīde-re-s-us sum.+    * //nōsc-ō// “know”//nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/); \\ //cognosc// “get to know”//cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//\\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc// “increase”//crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/)\\ //suēsc// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/)\\ //(ad)olēsc// “grow up”//adolē-u-īadultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
  
  
-<code> +    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //toll-ō// “pick up”, //tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”, //fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” , merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”, merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m  «mériter». 
  
 +
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//; \\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
 +
 +
 +    * • Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 + 
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”, //soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +