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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/06 19:24]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
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-PRESENT : //ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt// \\ IMPERFECT: //ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc.// \\ SUBJUNCTIVE: //ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc.// \\ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE:  //ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc.// being secondary and analogical((//Ederent// is nevertheless found in Gel. 19,2,7.)) ) \\ IMPERATIVE: //ēs, ēs-te// \\  FUTURE IMPERATIVE: //ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō// \\ INFINITIVE \\ //ēs-se// (//ede-re// being secondary and analogical) \\ PERFECT INFINITIVE: //ēd-is-se// \\  GERUND \\ //ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um// \\ SUPINE: //ēs-um, ēs-ū// \\ FUTURE PARTICIPLE: //esūr-us//((Plaut, //Men.// 147 : //Vbi essuri sumus ?// “Where are we going to eat?”)).+PRESENT: //ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt// \\ IMPERFECT: //ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc.// \\ SUBJUNCTIVE: //ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc.// \\ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE:  //ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc.// being secondary and analogical((//Ederent// is nevertheless found in Gel. 19,2,7.)) ) \\ IMPERATIVE: //ēs, ēs-te// \\  FUTURE IMPERATIVE: //ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō// \\ INFINITIVE//ēs-se// (//ede-re// being secondary and analogical) \\ PERFECT INFINITIVE: //ēd-is-se// \\  GERUND//ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um// \\ SUPINE: //ēs-um, ēs-ū// \\ FUTURE PARTICIPLE: //esūr-us//((Plaut, //Men.// 147 : //Vbi essuri sumus ?// “Where are we going to eat?”)).
  
  
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-2. The 1a. conjugation There are “about 3620 verbs in -ā-, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.138)+    * **7.11.1.2. The 1a. conjugation.** There are “about 3620 verbs in //-ā-//, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.138)
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.1. most of these verbs have only two allomorphs, like //amā- ~ am-//
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.1.2.2. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum:
- amost of these verbs have only two allomorphs, like amā- ~ am- +
- b. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //dă-re// “give”, //de-d-ī, dă-t-um// \\ //stā-re// “stand”, //ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us//
 + 
 +    * 7.11.1.2.3. some verbs have a //perfectum// in //ŭ-ī//:
 +  
 +    * //crepā-re// “resound”, //crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um// \\ //cubā-re// “be in bed”, //cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um// \\ //domā-re// “subdue”, //domŭ-ī, domi-t-um// \\ //secā-re// “cut”, //secŭ-ī, sec-t-um// \\ //sonā-re// “sound”, //sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um// \\ //tonā-re// “thunder“, //tonŭ-ī, ─ // \\ //uetā-re// “forbid”, //uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um//.
  
-dă-re “give”, de-d-ī, dă-t-um stā-re “stand”, ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us  csome verbs have prefectum in ŭ-ī: crepā-re “resound”, crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um cubā-re “be in bed”, cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um domā-re “subdue”, domŭ-ī, domi-t-um secā-re “cut”, secŭ-ī, sec-t-um sonā-re “sound”, sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um tonā-re “thunder“, tonŭ-ī, ─ uetā-re “forbid”, uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um+    * 7.11.1.2.4. one verb with lengthening perfectum
  
 +    * //iuuā-re// “help”, //iūu-ī, iū-t-um//
  
-<code> +    * **7.11.2. The 2nd  conjugation**
-         done verb with a lengthening perfectum +
-</code>+
  
 +    * **7.11.2.1. The 2nd conjugation**
  
-iuuā-re “help”iūu-ī-t-um+There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in //-ŭri-ō//among  which only two are in common usage: //par-turī-re// “be in labor” from //pari-ō// “bring forth”and //ēsurī-re// “be hungry” from //ed-ō// “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives //ī-re// (according to Mignot, 1969, //Les verbes dénominatifs latins//, p. 51) 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.1.: Verbs with a //-uis- perfectum//:
 +  
 +    *  audī-re, \\ //sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum// “bury”; \\ //cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re// “wish for, desire”; \\ //sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re// “have a taste, show good sense”,” 
 +     
 +    * 7.11.2.1.2. Verbs in //ŭī//: 
 +    
 +    * //aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum// “open”, \\ //operī-re, uī, tum// “cover”, \\ //salī-re, uī, tum// “jump, leap”; \\ //rapi-ō, e-re, uī, t-um// “take away”.
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.1.3. Verbs with lengthening //perfectum//
-BThe 2nd  conjugation +
-  1. The 2nd conjugation +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //uenī-re, uēn-ī, uen-tum// “come”; \\ //fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re// “dig”; \\ //faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re// “make”; \\ //iaci-ō, iēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re// “throw”; \\  //fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re// “flee”.
  
-There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in -ŭri-ō, among  which only two are in common usage:  par-turī-re “be in labor” from pari-ō “bring forth”, and ēsurī-re “be hungry” from ed-ō “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives ī-re (according to Mignot, 1969, Les verbes dénominatifs latins, p51) a. Verbs with a -uis- perfectum: audī-re,  sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum “bury”; cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re “wish for, desire”; sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re “have a taste, show good sense”,” b. Verbs in ŭī: aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum “open”, operī-re, uī, tum “cover”,  salī-re, uī, tum “jump, leap”; rapi-ō, e-re, u¬¬ī, t-um “take away”+    * 7.11.2.1.4. Verbs with sigmatic //perfectum//:
  
 +    * //farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum)// “stuff”; \\  //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum//, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (//haurī-// < //%%*%%hausi-//), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine). \\ //sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum// “patch”, \\ //sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum// “feel”, \\ //uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum// “bind” \\ //quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re// “shake”; \\ //concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re// “shake”; \\ //percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re// “strike forcibly hit”. \\ 
  
-<code> 
-c. Verbs with lengthening perfectum: uenī-re, uēn-ī, uen-tum “come”; 
-</code> 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.5. Verbs with Reduplication //perfectum//:
  
-fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re “dig”; faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re “make”; iaci-ō, iēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re “throw”; fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re “flee” 
  
 +    * //pari-o, pe-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re// “give birth to, bear”.
 +   
  
-<code> +    * **7.11.2.2. The 2a conjugation**
-dVerbs with sigmatic prefectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 1953, p. 124) 
  
-farcī-refar-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum) “stuff” haurī-re “drain”hau-s-ī, haus-tum, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (haurī- < %%*%%hausi-), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:alternating with /hausin the perfect and supine).  sarcī-resars-ī, sar-tum “patch”, sentī-resen-s-ī, sen-sum “feel”, uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum “bind” quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re “shake”concuti-ō, -cus--cus-sum, -cute-re “shake”percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re “strike forcibly hit”.+    * 7.11.2.2.1. with sigmatic //perfectum//: stem ending with a bilabial:  
 +  
 +    * //carp-ōcarp-s-ī, carp-tum// “pluck”\\ //rēp-ō// “creep”//rēp-s-ī, ─ //; \\   //scalp-ōscalp-s-ī, scalp-tum// “scrape”; \\ //sculp-ō// “carve”//sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;// \\ //serp// “crawl”//serp-s-ī─//;  
 +  
 +stem ending with a voiced bilabial
  
 +    * //nūb-ō// “marry”, //nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum//; \\  //scrīb-ō// “write”, //scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum//. 
  
-<code> +stem ending with a voiced apico-dental
-e. Verbs with Reduplication perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //cēd-ō// “yield”, //ces-s-ī, ces-sum//; \\ //claud-ō// “shut”, //clau-s-ī, claus-sum//; \\ //dīuid-ō// “divide”, //dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum//; \\ //frend-ō// “gnash”,// ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum)//; \\ //laed-ō// “hurt”, //lae-s-ī, lae-sum//; \\ //lūd-ō// “play”, //lūd-ī, lū-sum//; \\ //plaud-ō// “applaud”, //plau-s-ī, plau-sum//; \\ //rād-ō// “scrape”, //rā-s-ī, rā-sum//; \\   //rōd-ō// “gnaw”, //rō-s-ī, rō-sum//; \\ //trūd-ō// “thrust”, //trū-s-ī, trū-sum//; \\ //uād-ō// “go”, //uā-s-ī, uā-sum//. \\ //mitt-ō// “send”, //mī-s-ī// (= /mi:t-s-i:/), //mis-sum// (= /mit-sum/); \\ //omitt-ō// “release from”, //omī-s-ī, omis-sum//.
  
-pari-o, pe-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re “give birth to, bear”.+stem ending with  a velar: 
  
 +    * //dīc-ō// “say”, //dīx-ī, dic-tum//; \\ //dūc-ō// “guide”, //dūx-ī, duc-tum//;
  
-<code> +stem ending with a voiced velar: 
-2. The 2a conjugation +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ang-ō// “choke”, //ānx-ī, ─//; \\ //cing-ō// “bind”, //cinx-ī, cinc-tum//; \\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//; \\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//; \\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//; \\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//; \\   //frig-ō// “fry”, //frīx-ī, frīc-tum//; \\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//; \\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//; \\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//; \\  //plang-ō// “beat”, //plānx-ī, plānc-tum//; \\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//; \\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum// ; \\ //sūg-ō// “suck”, //sūx-ī, sūc-tum//; \\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum//; \\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//; \\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//; \\ //merg-ō// “plunge”, //mer-s-ī, mer-sum//; \\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//; \\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//; 
  
-“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 19533, p. 124) a. with sigmatic perfectum: stem ending with a bilabial: carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum “pluck”; rēp-ō “creep”, rēp-s-ī, ─ ;  scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum “scrape”; sculp-ō “carve”, sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;  serp-ō “crawl”, serp-s-ī, ─; stem ending with a voiced bilabial: nūb-ō “marry”, nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum;  scrīb-ō “write”, scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum. stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: cēd-ō “yield”, ces-s-ī, ces-sum; claud-ō “shut”, clau-s-ī, claus-sum; dīuid-ō “divide”, dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum; frend-ō “gnash”, ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum);  laed-ō “hurt”, lae-s-ī, lae-sum;  lūd-ō “play”, lūd-ī, lū-sum; plaud-ō “applaud”, plau-s-ī, plau-sum; rād-ō “scrape”, rā-s-ī, rā-sum;  rōd-ō “gnaw”, rō-s-ī, rō-sum; trūd-ō “thrust”, trū-s-ī, trū-sum; uād-ō “go”, uā-s-ī, uā-sum. mitt-ō “send”, mī-s-ī (= /mi:t-s-i:/), mis-sum (= /mit-sum/); omitt-ō “release from”, omī-s-ī, omis-sum.    stem ending with  a velar: dīc-ō “say”, dīx-ī, dic-tum; dūc-ō “guide”, dūx-ī, duc-tum; stem ending with a voiced velar: ang-ō “choke”, ānx-ī, ─; cing-ō “bind”, cinx-ī, cinc-tum; ēmung-ō “clean out”, -mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum; fīg-ō “fix”, fīx-ī, fīx-um; fing-ō “fashion”, finx-ī, fic-tum; -flīg-ō “smite”, -flīx-ī, -flīc-tum;  frig-ō “fry”, frīx-ī, frīc-tum; iung-ō “join”, iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum; perg-ō “go on”, perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum; ping-ō “paint”, pīnx-ī, pic-tum;  plang-ō “beat”, plānx-ī, plānc-tum; reg-ō “rule”, rēx-ī, rēc-tum; string-ō “bind”, strīnx-ī, stric-tum; sūg-ō “suck”, sūx-ī, sūc-tum; surg-ō “rise”, surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum; teg-ō “shelter”, tēx-ī, tēc-tum; ting-ō “stain”, tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum; merg-ō “plunge”, mer-s-ī, mer-sum; sparg-ō “scatter”, spar-s-ī, spar-sum;  terg-ō “wipe”, ter-s-ī, ter-sum; stem ending with  a labiovelar: coqu-ō “cook”, cox-ī, coc-tum; -stingu-ō “quench”, -stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum; ungu-ō (ung-ō) “anoint”, ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum; stem ending with ct: flect-ō “bend”, flex-ī, flex-um; nect-ō “weave”, nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um;  pect-ō “comb”, pex-ī, pex-um; plect-ō “braid”, plex-ī, plec-tum.   stem ending with a nasal:   cōm-ō “comb, deck”, cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum; dēm-ō “take away”, dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum; prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum “press”; prōm-ō “bring out”, prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum; sūm-ō “take”, sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum.  temn-ō “despise”, temp-s-ī, temp-tum.+stem ending with  a labiovelar: 
  
 +    * //coqu-ō// “cook”, //cox-ī, coc-tum//; \\ //-stingu-ō// “quench”, //-stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum//; \\ //ungu-ō (ung-ō)// “anoint”, //ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum//;  
 + 
 +stem ending with //ct//: 
  
-flu-ō “flow”flūx-ī, flux-um; stru-ō “build”, strūx-ī, strūc-tum. trah-ō “drag”, trāx-ī, trāc-tum; ueh-ō “draw”, uēx-ī, uec-tum.  uīu-ō “live”, uīx-ī, uīc-tum.  ger-ō “carry”, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (there are two allomorphs /geri/ges/);  ūr-ō “burn”, us-s-ī, us-tum. b. with -uis- or  only -is- Perfectum? acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum “sharpen”; the present acu-ō  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:(cf. acū-tum). As for the perfect acu-īis it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  argu-ō “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), argu-ī, argū-tum; imbu-ō “give a taste of”, imbu-ī, imbū-tum;  lu-ō “wash”, lu-ī, -lū-tum; metu-ō “fear”, metu-ī, metū-tum; minu-ō “lessen”, minu-ī, minū-tum; statu-ō “establish”, statu-ī, statū-tum; su-ō “sew”, su-ī, sū-tum; (ex)u-ō “put off”, u-ī, ū-tum;  tribu-ō “assign”, tribu-ī, tribū-tum; (con)gru-ō  “agree”, gru-ī, ─  ; -nu-ō “nod”, -nu-ī, ─ ; spu-ō “spit”, spu-ī, ─ ; sternu-ō  “sneeze”, sternu-ī, ─ ; ru-ō “fall”, ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us), /ruo:would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is rutum and not %%*%%rūtum. Perfectum in [i:-wis]: arcess-ō “summon”, arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum; capess-ō “undertake”, capessī-u-ī, ─ ;  incess-ō “attack”, incessī-u-ī, ─ ; lacess-ō “provoke”, lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum; pet-ō “seek to obtain”, petī-u-ī or peti-ī, petī-tum; quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum; rud-ō “bray”, rudī-u-ī, ─ ; scisc-ō “decree”, scī-u-ī, scī-tum;  ter-ō “rub”, trī-u-ī, trī-tum. sin-ō “permit”, sī-u-ī, si-tum. perfectum in [u-wis]: al-ō “nourish”, alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum); col-ō “dwell, till”, colu-ī, cultum; compēsc-ō “restrain”, compēscu-ī, ─ ; cōnsul-ō “consult”, cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum; -cumb-ō “lie down”, -cubu-ī, cubi-tum; deps-ō “knead”, dessu-ī, deps-tum; frem-ō “roar”, fremu-ī, ─ ; gem-ō “groan”, gemu-ī, ─ ; gign-ō “beget”, genu-ī, geni-tum; met-ō “reap”, messu-ī, -messum; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /isor /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+    * //flect// “bend”//flex-ī, flex-um//; \\ //nect-ō// “weave”, //nex-ī (nexu-i)nex-um//; \\ //pect-ō// “comb”, //pex-ī, pex-um//; \\ //plect-ō// “braid”, //plex-ī, plec-tum //  
  
 +stem ending with a nasal:   
  
-solu-ō “moosepay”solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectum: cad-ō “fall”ce-cid-ī, -sum; caed-ō “cut”ce-cīd-ī, cae-sumcan-ō “sing”ce-cin-īcan-tum; scind-ō “tear”scicid-ī (-scid)sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tumat-ting-ō “touch”at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdereperdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+    * //cōm// “combdeck”//cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//\\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//; \\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”\\ //prōm// “bring out”//prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//\\ //sūm// “take”//sūmp-sūmp-tum//. \\ //temn// “despise”//temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu// “flow”//flūx-ī, flux-um//\\ //stru// “build”//strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah// “drag”//trāx-ī, trāc-tum//\\ //ueh// “draw”//uēx-ī, uec-tum//. \\  //uīu// “live”//uīx-ī, uīc-tum//. \\  //ger// “carry”//ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/); \\  //ūr// “burn”//us-s-ī, us-tum//.
  
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.2. with //-uis-// or  only //-is-// //Perfectum//? 
-. with a lengthening perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum// “sharpen”; the present //acu-ō//  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf. //acū-tum//). As for the perfect //acu-ī//, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  
 +   
 +    * //argu-ō// “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), //argu-ī, argū-tum//; \\ //imbu-ō// “give a taste of”, //imbu-ī, imbū-tum//; \\ //lu-ō// “wash”, //lu-ī, -lū-tum//; \\ //metu-ō// “fear”, //metu-ī, metū-tum//; \\ //minu-ō// “lessen”, //minu-ī, minū-tum//; \\ //statu-ō// “establish”, //statu-ī, statū-tum//; \\ //su-ō// “sew”, //su-ī, sū-tum//; \\ //(ex)u-ō// “put off”, //u-ī, ū-tum//; \\ //tribu-ō// “assign”, //tribu-ī, tribū-tum//; \\ //(con)gru-ō//  “agree”, //gru-ī, ─  //; \\ //-nu-ō// “nod”, //-nu-ī, ─ //; \\ //spu-ō// “spit”, //spu-ī, ─ //; \\ //sternu-ō//  “sneeze”, //sternu-ī, ─ //; \\ //ru-ō// “fall”, //ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us)//, /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is //rutum// and not //%%*%%rūtum//. 
 + 
 +//Perfectum// in [i:-wis]: 
  
-ag-ō “drive”ēg-ī, āc-tum. ed-ō “eat”ēd-ī, ē-sumleg-ō “gather”lēg-ī, lec-tum; em-ō “buy”ēm-ī, emp-tum. cōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō)cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum; relinqu-ō  “leaveabandon”relinque -rerelīqu-ī, relic-tum; collig-ō “gather togethercollect”collige-recollēg-ī, collec-tum.+    * //arcess// “summon”//arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum//; \\ //capess// “undertake”//capessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //incess-ō// “attack”, //incessī-u-ī, ─ //\\ //lacess// “provoke”//lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum//\\ //pet// “seek to obtain”//petī-u-ī// or //peti-ī, petī-tum//; \\ //quaer// “seek”//quaesī-u-ī// or //quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum//\\ //rud// “bray”//rudī-u-ī─ //; \\ //scisc-ō// “decree”//scī-u-ī, scī-tum//\\  //ter// “rub”//trī-u-ītrī-tum//. \\ //sin-ō// “permit”//sī-u-ī, si-tum// 
 +   
 +//perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
 +    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //; \\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//; \\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//; \\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//; \\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //; \\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //; \\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//; \\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
  
-<code> +“the perfect in -uī had a great successin the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 1953, p. 208).
-         C. Some irregularities +
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation: +
-</code>+
  
 +//perfectum// in [e:-wis]: 
  
-ger-ō “bearcarry” gere-reges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ gerand /ges/);   quer-or “complain”quere-risquer-ī, ques-t-us su-m (= /kweri ~ kwerand /kwes+ Passive)ūr-ō “burn”ūre-reus-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūrand /us/); quaer-ō “seek”quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (= /kwairi ~ kwairand /kwaisi:/); hauri-ō “drain”haurī-re “drain”hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:and /haus/).+    * //cern// “decree”//crē-u-īcrē-tum//; \\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“//consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//; \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”//adolē-u-īadultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc// “be wont”//suē-u-īsuē-tus//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum//; \\ //stern////strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc// “forgive”//ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//. \\    
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//; and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /is/ or /…is/:
  
-nōsc-ō “know”nosce-re, nōu-ī, -tum (= /nōskand //); cognosc-ō “get to know”cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tumignosc-ō  “forgive”ignosce-reignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”crēsc-iscrē-u-ī, crē-tum (/kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”adolē-u-ī, adultumquiēsc-ō “rest”quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāsk/ and //);+    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//); \\ //īc// “hit”//īc-ī, ic-tum//; \\ //-cend// “kindle”//-cend-ī,-censum//; \\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//\\  //cūd// “forge”//-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand// “chew”//mand-īman-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//\\ //prehend// “seize”//prehend-ī, prehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd-ō// “settle”, //sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd// “whiz”//strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck », //uell-ī (-uul-sī)uul-sum//\\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”; \\ //uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
  
  
-<;code> +    * //solu-ō// “moose, pay”, //solu-ī, solū-tum//;  [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; \\ //uolu-ō// “turn”, //uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow », //consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// . 
-  • Verbs with a suppletive stem: +
-</code>;+
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//: 
 + 
 +    * //cad-ō// “fall”, //ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//; \\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting-ō// “touch”, //at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
  
-toll-ō “pick up”, tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum. fer-ō “carry”, fer-s, tul-ī, lātum. 
  
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.5. with lengthening //perfectum//:
-      • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by morphological unit of Perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ag-ō// “drive”, //ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed-ō// “eat”, //ēd-ī, ē-sum//; \\ //leg-ō// “gather”, //lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em-ō// “buy”, //ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum//; \\ //relinqu-ō//  “leave, abandon”, //relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig-ō// “gather together, collect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
  
-coep-ī “I began”, coep-is-tī, coep-is-se; memin-ī “I remember”, memin-is-tī, memin-is-se; ōd-ī “I hate”, ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se. 
  
 +    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
  
-• Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m ; sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-m; fīd-ō “trust”, fīde-re, fī-s-us sum.+    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
  
 +    * //ger-ō// “bear, carry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/); \\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); \\ //ūr-ō// “burn”, //ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); \\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
  
-<;code>; +    * //nōsc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/)\\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//\\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/)\\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/)\\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” , merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”, merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m  «mériter».+    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
  
 +    * //toll-ō// “pick up”, //tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”, //fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//; \\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
 +
 +
 +    * • Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 + 
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”, //soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +