Différences

Cette page vous donne les différences entre la révision choisie et la version actuelle de la page.

dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/06 18:05]
ollivier
dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
ollivier
Ligne 1236: Ligne 1236:
 As for //fī-ō//, its //infectum// system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is //fierem//, and the infinitive //fierī//. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb shows, in //infectum//, an allomorph /fi:i/ and in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”, which is really the passive of “make”, and thus it needs no Passive morphem, which nevertheless appears in the infinitive //fie-rī//. In the //perfectum//, it is the supine of the verb //faci-ō// “make” that is used; in order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the //perfectum// or the person unit.   As for //fī-ō//, its //infectum// system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is //fierem//, and the infinitive //fierī//. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb shows, in //infectum//, an allomorph /fi:i/ and in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”, which is really the passive of “make”, and thus it needs no Passive morphem, which nevertheless appears in the infinitive //fie-rī//. In the //perfectum//, it is the supine of the verb //faci-ō// “make” that is used; in order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the //perfectum// or the person unit.  
  
-The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the ī de fīō which doesn’t become short before a vowel, and the expected short ǐ of fierem and fierī, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, fie-rem corresponding to cape-rem, but with one additional i, and fie-rī to audī-rī, but with one additional e. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:i/ in the infectum, then in /fi:i-o:/ the short i, which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence fī-ō. And so, for fī-unt, fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s, etc. But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short i is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /s/ being between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i/ ~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long ī before this vowel receives a bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled fierem. And so, /fi:i-ri:/ with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination -rī of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  As for the other persons of the so-called present, fī-s corresponds to /fi:i-s/ which  is realized [fi:-s] spelled fis, because the obligatory contraction into a long ī of two i not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long ī, there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than s, hence the phonetic realization [fit].+The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the //ī// de //fīō// which doesn’t become short before a vowel, and the expected short //ǐ// of //fierem// and //fierī//, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, //fie-rem// corresponding to //cape-rem//, but with one additional //i//, and //fie-rī// to //audī-rī//, but with one additional //e//. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:i/ in the //infectum//, then in /fi:i-o:/ the short //i//, which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence //fī-ō//. And so, for //fī-unt////fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s////etc.// But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short //i// is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /s/ being between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i/ ~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long //ī// before this vowel receives a bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled //fierem//. And so, /fi:i-ri:/ with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination //-rī// of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  
  
 +As for the other persons of the so-called present, //fī-s// corresponds to /fi:i-s/ which  is realized [fi:-s] spelled //fis//, because the obligatory contraction into a long //ī// of two //i// not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long //ī//, there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than //s//, hence the phonetic realization [fit].
  
-<code> 
- Most compounds of faci-ō show the morphological alternations /a/ ~ /i/ in an open syllable, and /a/ ~ /e/ in a closed syllable, which are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophony, are inflectd in the following way: 
-con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um, -fice-re « finish » 
-</code> 
  
 +
 +**Most compounds of //faci-ō//** show the morphological alternations /a/ ~ /i/ in an open syllable, and /a/ ~ /e/ in a closed syllable, which are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophony, are inflectd in the following way:
 +
 +    * //con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um, -fice-re// « finish »
  
 and in the passive: and in the passive:
  
 +    * //con-fici-or, -fice-ris, -fec-t-us su-m, fic-ī.//
  
-<code> +But a few isolated forms of //fī-ō// can occur in these verbs: //confit// “it happens”//dēfit// “it lacks”//inter--a-t// “let him perish”//inter-fie-rī// “to perish”. 
-       con-fici-or-fice-ris, -fec-t-us su-mfic-ī. +
-</code>+
  
 +Some compounds retain the //a//¸ and normally have //-fi-ō// in the passive: as, //pate-faci-ō// “to make visible", //cale-faci-ō// “make hot”, //bene-faci-ō// “do a service to”, //satis-faci-ō// “give  satisfaction”. 
  
-But a few isolated forms of fī-ō can occur in these verbs: confit “it happens”, dēfit “it lacks”, inter-fī-a-t “let him perish”, inter-fie-rī “to perish”. Some compounds retain the a¸ and normally have -fi-ō in the passive: as, pate-faci-ō “to make visible", cale-faci-ō “make hot”, bene-faci-ō “do a service to”, satis-faci-ō “give  satisfaction”. But occasionly occur calfacientur (Vitr. 5,10,1), satisfacitur (Var., Men.+But occasionly occur //calfacientur// (Vitr. 5,10,1), //satisfacitur// (Var.,// Men.//,82)
  
  
-<code> 
-                F. The verb ed-ō, i-s, ēd-ī, ē-s-um, e-re, “eat” 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.6. The verb //ed-ō, i-s, ēd-ī, ē-s-um, e-re//, “eat”**
  
 which must not be confused with the verb which must not be confused with the verb
  
 +    * //ēd-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re// “eject, emit”,
  
-<;code> +has become a regular verb of the 2a conjugationbut besides the forms in //i// it shows some forms without //i// but with an initial long //ē//whereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with a short e:    
-ēd-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re “eject, emit”, +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ē-s// beside //edi-s//, //ēs-se-m// beside //ede-re-m//, phonetic realization of /edi-se:-m/, //ēs-se// beside //ede-re// phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  
  
-has become a regular verb of the 2a conjugation; but besides the forms in i it shows some forms without i but with an initial long ē, whereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with a short e:    ē-s beside edi-s, ēs-se-m beside ede-re-m, phonetic realization of /edi-se:-m/, ēs-se beside ede-re phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  which can be descripted by a variant /e:d/ immediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of %%*%%ed-s > %%*%%ēs-s (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel ), and finally %%*%%ēs-s > ēs ), and %%*%%ed-tos > %%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus , ēsus . But there are also+which can be descripted by a variant /e:d/ immediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of //%%*%%ed-s// //%%*%%ēs-s// (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel((cf.  Niedermann, Max, 1953 , //Phon. historique//, p. 69.)) ), and finally //%%*%%ēs-s// //ēs// ((Cf. Niedemann, 19533, p. 121.))), and //%%*%%ed-tos// //%%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus//((Cf Niedermann1953, p. 149.)) ,// ēsus//((Cf. Niedermann, 19533, p. 148)). But there are also
  
 +//ēst, ēstis//, (the passive //ēs-tur//) beside //edi-t, edi-tis// (and //edi-tur//),
  
-<code> 
-ēst, ēstis, (the passive ēs-tur) beside edi-t, edi-tis (and edi-tur), 
-</code> 
  
 +which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from //%%*%%ed-tis//, as they should have become //%%*%%ēs// and //%%*%%ēsis//, and not //ēs-t// and //ēs-tis//; but “the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes((Cf. Niedermann, 1953, p. 148)) . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in //i// (cf. //s-i-m// and //uel-i-m//), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in //-i-m//, beside the expected subjunctive in //-a-//:
  
-which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from %%*%%ed-tis, as they should have become %%*%%ēs and %%*%%ēsis, and not ēs-t and ēs-tis; but“the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in i (cf. s-i-m and uel-i-m), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in -i-m, beside the expected subjunctive in -a-: 
  
 +    * //ed-i-m, ed-ī-s, ed-i-t//, //etc.// beside //ed- a-m, ed-ā-s, ed-a-t, etc.//
  
-<;code> +The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age“Horatius always uses //edim//Ovidius //edam//” (according to Ernout19533p184).
-ed-i-med-ī-sed-i-tetcbeside ed- a-m, ed-ā-s, ed-a-t, etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age; “Horatius always uses edim, Ovidius edam” (according to Ernout, 19533, p. 184). 
  
 + So the verb //ed-ō// is conjugated in following way:
  
-<code> 
- So the verb ed-ō is conjugated in following way: 
-</code> 
  
  
-PRESENT   ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt   IMPERFECT ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc. SUBJUNCTIVE ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc. being secondary and analogical ) IMPERATIVE  ēs, ēs-te FUTURE IMPERATIVE ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō INFINITIVE ēs-se (ede-re being secondary and analogical)  PERFECT INFINITIVE ēd-is-se GERUND ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um SUPINE ēs-um, ēs-ū  FUTURE PARTICIPLE esūr-us .+PRESENT: //ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt// \\ IMPERFECT //ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc.// \\ SUBJUNCTIVE: //ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc.// \\ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE:  //ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc.// being secondary and analogical((//Ederent// is nevertheless found in Gel. 19,2,7.)) ) \\ IMPERATIVE: //ēs, ēs-te// \\  FUTURE IMPERATIVE: //ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō// \\ INFINITIVE: //ēs-se// (//ede-re// being secondary and analogical) \\ PERFECT INFINITIVE: //ēd-is-se// \\  GERUND: //ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um// \\ SUPINE: //ēs-um, ēs-ū// \\ FUTURE PARTICIPLE: //esūr-us//((Plaut, //Men.// 147 : //Vbi essuri sumus ?// “Where are we going to eat?”)).
  
  
-<code> 
- G. The verb d-ō “give” is regularly conjugated like am-ō, amā-s, but it has an ă everywhere am-ō has an ā, except in the present dā-s and the imperative dā. Thus it is conjugated in the following way: 
-in the present: d-ō, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt 
-in the other tenses and moods: dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.  
-in the passive: da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.7. The verb //d-ō// “give”** is regularly conjugated like //am-ō, amā-s//, but it has an //ă// everywhere //am-ō// has an //ā//, except in the present //dā-s// and the imperative //dā//. Thus it is conjugated in the following way:
  
-If the subjunctive d-e-m, d-ē-s, d-e-t is classical, archaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive: 
  
 +in the present: //d-ō, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt// \\ in the other tenses and moods: //dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.// \\  in the passive: //da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc.//
  
-<code> +If the subjunctive //d-e-md-ē-sd-e-t// is classical, archaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive:
-Duint (Plaut.Amph. 72)ne duīs (Plaut., Capt. 947), ne duās (Plaut., Aul. 238). +
-</code> +
-<code> +
- 11. Classified lists of verbs +
- A. The first conjugation +
- 1. The 1st conjugation +
-</code>+
  
  
-There are “about 570 verbs in -ē-among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout19533p.143) a. Most of these verbs are inflected like mone-ō “warn”, ŭ-ī, i-t-umcale-ō “be warm”debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etc. bsome have certainly a perfetum in ŭ-ībut no supine in i-tum time-ō “fear”, timŭ-ī, ─ care-ō “lack”, carŭ-ī, ─ ege-ō “need”, egŭ-ī, ─ cense-ō “value”, cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um doce-ō “teach”, docŭ-ī, doc-t-um misce-ō “mix”, miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um tene-ō “hold“, tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um torre-ō “roast“, torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um cSome of these have the same morph in all the form systemsdele-ō “destroy”, dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um fle-ō “weep”, flē-re¸ flē-u-ī, flē-t-um ne-ō “sew”, nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um com-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um ex-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um im-ple-ō “fill”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um re-ple-ō “fill again”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um+    * Plaut.//Amph.// 72: //Duint// Plaut.//Capt.// 947//ne duīs// Plaut., //Aul.// 238//ne duās//. 
  
  
-<code> 
-             d. some of these have a reduplication perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.11. Classified lists of verbs**
  
-morde-ō “bite”, mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um pende-ō “hang”, pe-pend-ī, ─ sponde-ō “pledge”, spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um tonde-ō “shear”, to-tond-ī (tond-ī), tōn-s-um 
  
 +    * **7.11.1. The first conjugation**
  
-<code> 
-   e. a number of these has a sigmatic perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.11.1.1.** The 1st conjugation
  
-ārde-ō, ār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um suāde-ō “urge”, suā-s-ī, suā-s-um haere-ō “cling”, hae-s-ī, hae-s-um mane-ō “wait”, man-s-ī, man-s-um fulge-ō “shine”, ful-s-ī, ─ torque-ō “twist”, tor-s-ī, tor-t-um indulge-ō “indulge”, indul-s-ī, indul-t-um  iube-ō “order”, ius-s-ī, ius-s-um auge-ō “increase”, aux-ī, auc-t-um lūce-ō “shine”, lūx-ī, ─ f. some have a lengthening perfectum caue-ō “care”, cāu-ī, cau-t-um faue-ō “favor”, fāu-ī, fau-t-um foue-ō, “cherish”, fōu-ī, fō-t-um moue-ō “move”, mōu-ī, mō-t-um uoue-ō “vow“, uōu-ī, uō-t-um sede-ō “sit”, sēd-ī, ses-s-um uide-ō “see“, uīd-ī, uī-s-um g. three are semi-deponent: aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m sole-ō “be wont“, soli-t-us su-m 
  
  
-2. The 1a. conjugation There are “about 3620 verbs in -ā-, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.138)+There are “about 570 verbs in //-ē-//, among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.143
  
 +    * 7.11.1.1.1. Most of these verbs are inflected like //mone-ō// “warn”, //ŭ-ī, i-t-um//:
  
-<code> +    *  //cale-ō// “be warm”, //debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etc.//  
- amost of these verbs have only two allomorphslike amā~ am+      
- btwo verbs have a reduplication perfectum: +    * 7.11.1.1.2. some have certainly a //perfetum// in //ŭ-ī//but no supine in //i-tum// 
-</code>+  
 +    *  //time-ō// “fear”, //timŭ-ī//, ─  \\ //care-ō// “lack”, //carŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //ege-ō// “need”, //egŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //cense-ō// “value”, //cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um// \\ //doce-ō// “teach”, //docŭ-ī, doc-t-um// \\ //misce-ō// “mix”, //miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um// \\ //tene-ō// “hold“, //tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um// \\ //torre-ō// “roast“, //torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um//  
 +     
 +    * 7.11.1.1.3. Some of these have the same morph in all the form systems
  
 +    * //dele-ō// “destroy”, //dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um// \\ //fle-ō// “weep”, //flē-re//¸ //flē-u-ī, flē-t-um// \\  //ne-ō// “sew”, //nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um// \\ //com-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //ex-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //im-ple-ō// “fill”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //re-ple-ō// “fill again”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um//.
  
-dă-re “give”, de-d-ī, dă-t-um stā-re “stand”, ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us  c. some verbs have a prefectum in ŭ-ī: crepā-re “resound”, crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um cubā-re “be in bed”, cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um domā-re “subdue”, domŭ-ī, domi-t-um secā-re “cut”, secŭ-ī, sec-t-um sonā-re “sound”, sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um tonā-re “thunder“, tonŭ-ī, ─ uetā-re “forbid”, uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um 
  
 +    * 7.11.1.1.4. some of these have a reduplication //perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //morde-ō// “bite”, //mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um// \\ //pende-ō// “hang”, //pe-pend-ī, ─ // \\ //sponde-ō// “pledge”, //spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um// \\  //tonde-ō// “shear”, //to-tond-ī (tond-ī), tōn-s-um//.
-         d. one verb with a lengthening perfectum +
-</code>+
  
  
-iuuā-re “help”, iūu-ī, iū-t-um+    * 7.11.1.1.5. a number of these has a sigmatic //perfectum//:
  
 +    * //ārde-ō, ār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us// \\ //rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um// \\ //suāde-ō// “urge”, //suā-s-ī, suā-s-um// \\ //haere-ō// “cling”, //hae-s-ī, hae-s-um// \\ //mane-ō// “wait”, //man-s-ī, man-s-um// \\ //fulge-ō// “shine”, //ful-s-ī, ─// \\ //torque-ō// “twist”, //tor-s-ī, tor-t-um// \\ //indulge-ō// “indulge”, //indul-s-ī, indul-t-um// \\ //iube-ō// “order”, //ius-s-ī, ius-s-um// \\  //auge-ō// “increase”, //aux-ī, auc-t-um// \\ //lūce-ō// “shine”, //lūx-ī, ─//. 
 +     
 +    * 7.11.1.1.6. some have a lengthening //perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //caue-ō// “care”, //cāu-ī, cau-t-um// \\ //faue-ō// “favor”, //fāu-ī, fau-t-um// \\ //foue-ō//, “cherish”, //fōu-ī, fō-t-um// \\ //moue-ō// “move”, //mōu-ī, mō-t-um// \\ //uoue-ō// “vow“, //uōu-ī, uō-t-um// \\ //sede-ō// “sit”, //sēd-ī, ses-s-um// \\ //uide-ō// “see“, //uīd-ī, uī-s-um//
-BThe 2nd  conjugation +     
-  1. The 2nd conjugation +    *  7.11.1.1.7. three are semi-deponent: 
-</code>+
  
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m// \\ //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// \\ //sole-ō// “be wont“, //soli-t-us su-m//
  
-There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in -ŭri-ō, among  which only two are in common usage:  par-turī-re “be in labor” from pari-ō “bring forth”, and ēsurī-re “be hungry” from ed-ō “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives ī-re (according to Mignot, 1969, Les verbes dénominatifs latins, p. 51) a. Verbs with a -uis- perfectum: audī-re,  sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum “bury”; cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re “wish for, desire”; sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re “have a taste, show good sense”,” b. Verbs in ŭī: aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum “open”, operī-re, uī, tum “cover”,  salī-re, uī, tum “jump, leap”; rapi-ō, e-re, u¬¬ī, t-um “take away” 
  
 +    * **7.11.1.2. The 1a. conjugation.** There are “about 3620 verbs in //-ā-//, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.138)
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.1.2.1. most of these verbs have only two allomorphslike //amā~ am-//
-cVerbs with lengthening perfectum: uenī-reuēn-ī, uen-tum “come”; +
-</code>+
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.2. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum:
  
-fodi-ōfōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re “dig”; faci-ōfēc-ī, fac-tumface-re “make”; iaci-ōiēc-ī, iac-tumiace-re “throw”; fugi-ōfūg-ī, fugi-tūr-usfuge-re “flee”+    * //dă-re// “give”//de-d-ī, -t-um// \\ //stā-re// “stand”, //ste-t-īstā-tūr-us// 
 +  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.3. some verbs have a //perfectum// in //ŭ//: 
 +   
 +    * //crepā-re// “resound”//crepŭ-īcrepi-t-um// \\ //cubā-re// “be in bed”//cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um// \\ //domā-re// “subdue”//domŭ-ī, domi-t-um// \\ //secā-re// “cut”, //secŭ-īsec-t-um// \\ //sonā-re// “sound”, //sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um// \\ //tonā-re// “thunder“//tonŭ-ī, ─ // \\ //uetā-re// “forbid”, //uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um//.
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.4. one verb with a lengthening perfectum
  
-<code> +    * //iuuā-re// “help”, //iūu-ī, iū-t-um//
-d. Verbs with sigmatic prefectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * **7.11.2. The 2nd  conjugation**
  
-farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum) “stuff”;  haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (haurī- < %%*%%hausi-), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine) sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum “patch”, sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum “feel”, uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum “bind” quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re “shake”; concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re “shake”: percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re “strike forcibly hit”.+    **7.11.2.1. The 2nd conjugation**
  
 +There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in //-ŭri-ō//, among  which only two are in common usage: //par-turī-re// “be in labor” from //pari-ō// “bring forth”, and //ēsurī-re// “be hungry” from //ed-ō// “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives //ī-re// (according to Mignot, 1969, //Les verbes dénominatifs latins//, p. 51) 
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.1.1.: Verbs with a //-uis- perfectum//
-e. Verbs with Reduplication perfectum: +   
-<;/code>;+    *  audī-re, \\ //sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum// “bury”\\ //cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re// “wish for, desire”\\ //sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re// “have a taste, show good sense”,”  
 +      
 +    * 7.11.2.1.2. Verbs in //ŭī//:  
 +     
 +    * //aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum// “open”, \\ //operī-re, uī, tum// “cover”, \\ //salī-re, uī, tum// “jump, leap”; \\ //rapi-ō, e-re, uī, t-um// “take away”.
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.3. Verbs with lengthening //perfectum//: 
  
-pari-ope-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re “give birth tobear”.+    * //uenī-reuēn-ī, uen-tum// “come”; \\ //fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re// “dig”; \\ //faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re// “make”; \\ //iaci-ōiēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re// “throw”; \\  //fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re// “flee”.
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.4. Verbs with sigmatic //perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum)// “stuff”; \\  //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum//, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (//haurī-// //%%*%%hausi-//), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine)\\ //sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum// “patch”, \\ //sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum// “feel”, \\ //uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum// “bind” \\ //quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re// “shake”\\ //concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re// “shake”\\ //percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re// “strike forcibly hit”. \\ 
-2The 2a conjugation +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 19533, p124) a. with sigmatic perfectum: stem ending with a bilabial: carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum “pluck”; rēp-ō “creep”, rēp-s-ī, ─ ;  scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum “scrape”; sculp-ō “carve”, sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;  serp-ō “crawl”, serp-s-ī, ─; stem ending with a voiced bilabial: nūb-ō “marry”, nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum;  scrīb-ō “write”, scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tumstem ending with a voiced apico-dental: cēd-ō “yield”, ces-s-ī, ces-sum; claud-ō “shut”, clau-s-ī, claus-sum; dīuid-ō “divide”, dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum; frend-ō “gnash”, ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum);  laed-ō “hurt”, lae-s-ī, lae-sum;  lūd-ō “play”, lūd-ī, lū-sum; plaud-ō “applaud”, plau-s-ī, plau-sum; rād-ō “scrape”, rā-s-ī, rā-sum;  rōd-ō “gnaw”, rō-s-ī, rō-sum; trūd-ō “thrust”, trū-s-ī, trū-sum; uād-ō “go”, uā-s-ī, uā-sum. mitt-ō “send”, mī-s-ī (= /mi:t-s-i:/), mis-sum (= /mit-sum/); omitt-ō “release from”, omī-s-ī, omis-sum.    stem ending with  a velardīc-ō “say”, dīx-ī, dic-tum; dūc-ō “guide”, dūx-ī, duc-tum; stem ending with a voiced velar: ang-ō “choke”, ānx-ī, ─; cing-ō “bind”, cinx-ī, cinc-tum; ēmung-ō “clean out”, -mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum; fīg-ō “fix”, fīx-ī, fīx-um; fing-ō “fashion”, finx-ī, fic-tum; -flīg-ō “smite”, -flīx-ī, -flīc-tum;  frig-ō “fry”, frīx-ī, frīc-tum; iung-ō “join”, iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum; perg-ō “go on”, perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum; ping-ō “paint”, pīnx-ī, pic-tum;  plang-ō “beat”, plānx-ī, plānc-tum; reg-ō “rule”, rēx-ī, rēc-tum; string-ō “bind”, strīnx-ī, stric-tum; sūg-ō “suck”, sūx-ī, sūc-tum; surg-ō “rise”, surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum; teg-ō “shelter”, tēx-ī, tēc-tum; ting-ō “stain”, tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum; merg-ō “plunge”, mer-s-ī, mer-sum; sparg-ō “scatter”, spar-s-ī, spar-sum;  terg-ō “wipe”, ter-s-ī, ter-sum; stem ending with  a labiovelar: coqu-ō “cook”, cox-ī, coc-tum; -stingu-ō “quench”, -stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum; ungu-ō (ung-ō) “anoint”, ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum; stem ending with ct: flect-ō “bend”, flex-ī, flex-um; nect-ō “weave”, nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um;  pect-ō “comb”, pex-ī, pex-um; plect-ō “braid”, plex-ī, plec-tum.   stem ending with a nasal:   cōm-ō “comb, deck”, cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum; dēm-ō “take away”, dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum; prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum “press”; prōm-ō “bring out”, prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum; sūm-ō “take”, sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum.  temn-ō “despise”, temp-s-ī, temp-tum.+    * 7.11.2.1.5. Verbs with Reduplication //perfectum//:
  
  
-flu-ō “flow”, flūx-ī, flux-um; stru-ō “build”, strūx-ī, strūc-tum. trah-ō “drag”, trāx-ī, trāc-tum; ueh-ō “draw”, uēx-ī, uec-tum.  uīu-ō “live”, uīx-ī, uīc-tum.  ger-ō “carry”, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (there are two allomorphs /geri~ /ges/);  ūr-ō “burn”us-s-ī, us-tum. b. with -uis- or  only -is- Perfectum? acu-ōacu-ī, acū-tum “sharpen”; the present acu-ō  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:(cf. acū-tum). As for the perfect acu-ī, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  argu-ō “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), argu-ī, argū-tum; imbu-ō “give a taste of”, imbu-ī, imbū-tum;  lu-ō “wash”, lu-ī, -lū-tum; metu-ō “fear”, metu-ī, metū-tum; minu-ō “lessen”, minu-ī, minū-tum; statu-ō “establish”, statu-ī, statū-tum; su-ō “sew”, su-ī, sū-tum; (ex)u-ō “put off”, u-ī, ū-tum;  tribu-ō “assign”, tribu-ī, tribū-tum; (con)gru-ō  “agree”, gru-ī, ─  ; -nu-ō “nod”, -nu-ī, ─ ; spu-ō “spit”, spu-ī, ─ ; sternu-ō  “sneeze”, sternu-ī, ─ ; ru-ō “fall”, ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us), /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is rutum and not %%*%%rūtum. Perfectum in [i:-wis]: arcess-ō “summon”, arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum; capess-ō “undertake”, capessī-u-ī, ─ ;  incess-ō “attack”, incessī-u-ī, ─ ; lacess-ō “provoke”, lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum; pet-ō “seek to obtain”petī-u-ī or peti-ī, petī-tum; quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum; rud-ō “bray”, rudī-u-ī, ─ ; scisc-ō “decree”, scī-u-ī, scī-tum;  ter-ō “rub”, trī-u-ī, trī-tum. sin-ō “permit”, sī-u-ī, si-tum. perfectum in [u-wis]: al-ō “nourish”, alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum); col-ō “dwell, till”, colu-ī, cultum; compēsc-ō “restrain”, compēscu-ī, ─ ; cōnsul-ō “consult”, cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum; -cumb-ō “lie down”, -cubu-ī, cubi-tum; deps-ō “knead”, dessu-ī, deps-tum; frem-ō “roar”, fremu-ī, ─ ; gem-ō “groan”, gemu-ī, ─ ; gign-ō “beget”, genu-ī, geni-tum; met-ō “reap”, messu-ī, -messum; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /is/ or /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”, īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+    * //pari-ope-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re// “give birth to, bear”. 
 +   
  
 +    * **7.11.2.2. The 2a conjugation**
  
-solu-ō “moose, pay”, solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus]phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectumcad-ō “fall”, ce-cid-ī, cā-sum; caed-ō “cut”, ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum; can-ō “sing”, ce-cin-ī, can-tum; scind-ō “tear”, scicid-ī (-scid-ī)sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum; at-ting-ō “touch”, at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” , conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”, pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”, posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”, prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”, prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs in allabout 2400 verbs” (Ernout1953p. 124
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.1. with sigmatic //perfectum//: stem ending with a bilabial: 
 + 
 +    * //carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum// “pluck”; \\ //rēp-ō// “creep”, //rēp-s-ī, ─ //; \\   //scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum// “scrape”; \\ //sculp-ō// “carve”, //sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;// \\ //serp-ō// “crawl”, //serp-s-ī, ─//; 
 + 
 +stem ending with a voiced bilabial: 
  
-<code> +    * //nūb-ō// “marry”, //nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum//; \\  //scrīb-ō// “write”, //scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum//. 
-e . with a lengthening perfectum: +
-</code>;+
  
 +stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: 
  
-ag-ō “drive”ēg-ī, āc-tum. ed-ō “eat”ēd-ī, ē-sum; leg-ō “gather”lēg-ī, lec-tumem-ō “buy”ēm-ī, emp-tum. cōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō)cōge-recoēg-ī, coac-tumrelinqu-ō  “leaveabandon”relinque -rerelīqu-ī, relic-tumcollig-ō “gather togethercollect”collige-recollēg-ī, collec-tum.+    * //cēd// “yield”//ces-s-ī, ces-sum//; \\ //claud// “shut”//clau-s-ī, claus-sum//\\ //dīuid// “divide”//dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum//\\ //frend// “gnash”,// ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum)//; \\ //laed-ō// “hurt”, //lae-s-ī, lae-sum//; \\ //lūd// “play”//lūd-īlū-sum//; \\ //plaud-ō// “applaud”, //plau-s-ī, plau-sum//\\ //rād// “scrape”//rā-s-ī-sum//; \\   //rōd-ō// “gnaw”//rō-s-ī, -sum//\\ //trūd// “thrust”//trū-s-ītrū-sum//; \\ //uād-ō// “go”//uā-s-ī, -sum//. \\ //mitt-ō// “send”, //mī-s-ī// (= /mi:t-s-i:/), //mis-sum// (= /mit-sum/); \\ //omitt-ō// “release from”, //omī-s-ī, omis-sum//.
  
 +stem ending with  a velar: 
  
-<code> +    * //dīc-ō// “say”, //dīx-ī, dic-tum//\\ //dūc-ō// “guide”, //dūx-ī, duc-tum//;
-         C. Some irregularities +
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation: +
-<;/code>;+
  
 +stem ending with a voiced velar: 
  
-ger-ō “bearcarry” gere-reges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ gerand /ges/);   quer-or “complain”quere-risquer-ī, ques-t-us su-m (= /kweri ~ kwerand /kwes+ Passive)ūr-ō “burn”ūre-reus-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūrand /us/)quaer-ō “seek”quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (= /kwairi ~ kwairand /kwaisi:/)hauri-ō “drain”haurī-re “drain”hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:and /haus/).+    * //ang// “choke”//ānx-ī─//; \\ //cing-ō// “bind”//cinx-ī, cinc-tum//; \\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//; \\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//; \\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//; \\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//; \\   //frig-ō// “fry”//frīx-īfrīc-tum//; \\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//; \\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//; \\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//; \\  //plang// “beat”//plānx-īplānc-tum//; \\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//; \\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum// ; \\ //sūg// “suck”//sūx-ī, sūc-tum//; \\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx, surrēc-tum//; \\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//; \\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//; \\ //merg// “plunge”//mer-s-īmer-sum//; \\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//; \\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//; 
  
 +stem ending with  a labiovelar: 
  
-nōsc-ō “know”nosce-re, nōu-ī, -tum (= /nōskand //); cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō  “forgive”ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”, crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum (= /kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāskand //);+    * //coqu// “cook”//cox-ī, coc-tum//; \\ //-stingu// “quench”//-stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum//; \\ //ungu-ō (ung-ō)// “anoint”, //ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum//;   
 +  
 +stem ending with //ct//: 
  
 +    * //flect-ō// “bend”, //flex-ī, flex-um//; \\ //nect-ō// “weave”, //nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um//; \\ //pect-ō// “comb”, //pex-ī, pex-um//; \\ //plect-ō// “braid”, //plex-ī, plec-tum //.   
  
-<code> +stem ending with a nasal  
-  • Verbs with a suppletive stem: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //cōm-ō// “comb, deck”, //cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//; \\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//; \\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”; \\ //prōm-ō// “bring out”, //prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//; \\ //sūm-ō// “take”, //sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum//. \\ //temn-ō// “despise”, //temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu-ō// “flow”, //flūx-ī, flux-um//; \\ //stru-ō// “build”, //strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah-ō// “drag”, //trāx-ī, trāc-tum//; \\ //ueh-ō// “draw”, //uēx-ī, uec-tum//. \\  //uīu-ō// “live”, //uīx-ī, uīc-tum//. \\  //ger-ō// “carry”, //ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/); \\  //ūr-ō// “burn”, //us-s-ī, us-tum//.
  
-toll-ō “pick up”, tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum. fer-ō “carry”, fer-s, tul-ī, lātum. 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.2. with //-uis-// or  only //-is-// //Perfectum//? 
  
-<code>; +    * //acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum// “sharpen”the present //acu-ō//  corresponds to [akuwo:]which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf. //acū-tum//). As for the perfect //acu-ī//, is it perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.   
-      • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by morphological unit of Perfectum+    
-<;/code>;+    * //argu-ō// “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), //argu-ī, argū-tum//\\ //imbu-ō// “give a taste of”, //imbu-ī, imbū-tum//; \\ //lu-ō// “wash”, //lu-ī, -lū-tum//; \\ //metu-ō// “fear”, //metu-ī, metū-tum//; \\ //minu-ō// “lessen”, //minu-ī, minū-tum//; \\ //statu-ō// “establish”, //statu-ī, statū-tum//; \\ //su-ō// “sew”, //su-ī, sū-tum//; \\ //(ex)u-ō// “put off”, //u-ī, ū-tum//; \\ //tribu-ō// “assign”, //tribu-ī, tribū-tum//; \\ //(con)gru-ō//  “agree”, //gru-ī, ─  //; \\ //-nu-ō// “nod”, //-nu-ī, ─ //; \\ //spu-ō// “spit”, //spu-ī, ─ //; \\ //sternu-ō//  “sneeze”, //sternu-ī, ─ //; \\ //ru-ō// “fall”, //ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us)//, /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is //rutum// and not //%%*%%rūtum//.  
 +  
 +//Perfectum// in [i:-wis]: 
  
 +    * //arcess-ō// “summon”, //arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum//; \\ //capess-ō// “undertake”, //capessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //incess-ō// “attack”, //incessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //lacess-ō// “provoke”, //lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum//; \\ //pet-ō// “seek to obtain”, //petī-u-ī// or //peti-ī, petī-tum//; \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī// or //quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum//; \\ //rud-ō// “bray”, //rudī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //scisc-ō// “decree”, //scī-u-ī, scī-tum//; \\  //ter-ō// “rub”, //trī-u-ī, trī-tum//. \\ //sin-ō// “permit”, //sī-u-ī, si-tum//. 
 +  
 +//perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
-coep-ī “I began”coep-is-coep-is-sememin-ī “I remember”memin-is-memin-is-seōd-ī “I hate”ōd-is-ōd-is-se.+    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwelltill”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //\\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”//-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//\\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”//fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//; \\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//; \\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//; \\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //; \\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //; \\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//; \\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
  
 +“the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 1953, p. 208).
  
-• Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m ; sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-m; fīd-ō “trust”, fīde-re, fī-s-us sum.+//perfectum// in [e:-wis]
  
 +    * //cern-ō// “decree”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“, //consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//; \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum//; \\ //stern-ō//, //strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō// “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//. \\    
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//; and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /is/ or /…is/:
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-</code>;+
  
 +    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//); \\ //īc-ō// “hit”, //īc-ī, ic-tum//; \\ //-cend-ō// “kindle”, //-cend-ī,-censum//; \\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//; \\  //cūd-ō// “forge”, //-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand-ō// “chew”, //mand-ī, man-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//; \\ //prehend-ō// “seize”, //prehend-ī, prehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd-ō// “settle”, //sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd-ō// “whiz”, //strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck », //uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum//; \\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”; \\ //uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” , merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”, merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m  «mériter». 
  
 +    * //solu-ō// “moose, pay”, //solu-ī, solū-tum//;  [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; \\ //uolu-ō// “turn”, //uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow », //consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// . 
 +
 +    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//: 
 + 
 +    * //cad-ō// “fall”, //ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//; \\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting-ō// “touch”, //at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * 7.11.2.2.5. with a lengthening //perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //ag-ō// “drive”, //ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed-ō// “eat”, //ēd-ī, ē-sum//; \\ //leg-ō// “gather”, //lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em-ō// “buy”, //ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum//; \\ //relinqu-ō//  “leave, abandon”, //relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig-ō// “gather together, collect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
 +
 +
 +    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
 +
 +    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
 +
 +    * //ger-ō// “bear, carry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/); \\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); \\ //ūr-ō// “burn”, //ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); \\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
 +
 +    * //nōsc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/); \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/); \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/); \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
 +
 +    * //toll-ō// “pick up”, //tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”, //fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//; \\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
 +
 +
 +    * • Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 + 
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”, //soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +