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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/06 17:10]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
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 The compounds of //fer-re// add to these particularities the phonological particularities that concern the possible consonantal final of their prefix, but are not always spelled: The compounds of //fer-re// add to these particularities the phonological particularities that concern the possible consonantal final of their prefix, but are not always spelled:
  
-    * //ad-fer-ō// “bring” pronounced [affero:], //ad-fer-s, ad-tul-ī// pronounced [attuli:], //ad-lā-t-um// pronounced [alla:tum] \\ //ef-fer-ō// “carry or bring out or away”, //ef-fer-s//, //ex-tul-ī, ē-lā-t-um// \\ //dif-fer-ō// “scatter, disperse”, //dif-fer-s//, //distul-ī, dī-lā-t-um// \\ //au-fer-ō// “carry or fetch away”, //au-fer-s, abs-tul-ī, ab-lā-t-um// \\ //of-fer-ō// “bring to a place”, //of-fer-s, ob-tul-ī, ob-lā-t-um// \\ //in-fer-ō// “carry or convey into a place”, //in-fer-s, in-tul-ī, il-lā-t-um// \\ //re-fer-ō// “bring back or again”, //re-fer-s, ret-tul-ī, re-lā-t-um// \\ //suf-fer-ō// “submit to”, //suf-fer-s, sus-tul-ī,  sub-lā-t-um// .+    * //ad-fer-ō// “bring” pronounced [affero:], //ad-fer-s, ad-tul-ī// pronounced [attuli:], //ad-lā-t-um// pronounced [alla:tum] \\ //ef-fer-ō// “carry or bring out or away”, //ef-fer-s//, //ex-tul-ī, ē-lā-t-um// \\ //dif-fer-ō// “scatter, disperse”, //dif-fer-s//, //distul-ī, dī-lā-t-um// \\ //au-fer-ō// “carry or fetch away”, //au-fer-s, abs-tul-ī, ab-lā-t-um// \\ //of-fer-ō// “bring to a place”, //of-fer-s, ob-tul-ī, ob-lā-t-um// \\ //in-fer-ō// “carry or convey into a place”, //in-fer-s, in-tul-ī, il-lā-t-um// \\ //re-fer-ō// “bring back or again”, //re-fer-s, ret-tul-ī, re-lā-t-um// \\ //suf-fer-ō// “submit to”, //suf-fer-s, sus-tul-ī,  sub-lā-t-um//((//Sus-tul-ī// and //sublā-t-um// also supply the perfect and supine of the verb //toll-ō// “pick up”.)) .
  
  
Ligne 1134: Ligne 1134:
  
  
- 1. The verb uol-ō whose principal parts are +    * **7.10.3.1. The verb uol-ō** whose principal parts are
-</code>+
  
 +    * //uol-ō, uī-s, uolŭ-ī, uel-le// has the particularity of not knowing the allomorph in //i// //uul-t, uul-tis, uel-le// phonetic realization of /uel-se /, //uel-le-m// phonetic realization of /uel-se:-m/ but nevertheless it follows the 2a conjugation, like //fer-ō//, while it shows some particularities of the //su-m// conjugation. It is certainly conjugated like //fer-ō// or //leg-ō//, with the imperfect //uol-ēba-m, uol-ēbā-s// and the future //uol-a-m, uol-ē-s//, like //fer-ēba-m// and //fer-a-m//; but in the subjunctive it gives //uel-i-m, uel-ī-s etc.// like //s-i-m, s-ī-s etc.// and it shows the same variant en //u-// in the present fourth person //uolu-mus, like su-mus//, and unlike //feri-mus//.  To this morphological irregularity is added a phonological particularity that shows that the basic allomorph of the verb is //uel-//. After an initial //u// the palatal phoneme /e/ is realized as a velar //o// before a explosive velar [ł], an //u// before an implosive [ł], //i. e.// an [ł] followed by a consonant that is not a second lateral, but an //e// before a palatal [l]. Thus, the lateral being velar before every vowel except /i/ or every consonant except /l/, /uel/ is realized [woł-] in
  
-uol-ō, -suolŭ-ī, uel-le has the particularity of not knowing the allomorph in i uul-t, uul-tis, uel-le phonetic realization of /uel-se /, uel-le-m phonetic realization of /uel-se:-mbut nevertheless it follows the 2a conjugation, like fer-ō, while it shows some particularities of the su-m conjugation. It is certainly conjugated like fer-ō or leg-ō, with the imperfect uol-ēba-m, uol-ēbā-s and the future uol-a-m, uol-ē-s, like fer-ēba-m and fer-a-m; but in the subjunctive it gives uel-i-m, uel-ī-s etc. like s-i-m, s-ī-s etc. and it shows the same variant en u- in the present fourth person uolu-mus, like su-mus, and unlike feri-mus.  To this morphological irregularity is added a phonological particularity that shows that the basic allomorph of the verb is uel-. After an initial u the palatal phoneme /eis realized as a velar o before a explosive velar [ł], an u before an implosive [ł], i. e. an [ł] followed by a consonant that is not a second lateral, but an e before a palatal [l]. Thusthe lateral being velar before every vowel except /ior every consonant except /l/, /uel/ is realized [woł-] in+    * //uol-ō// “I want”//uolu-mus// “we want”, //uol-unt//  “they want”, //uol-ēba-m// “I wanted”//uol-ēbā-s, etc. uol-a-m// “I shall want”//uol-ē-s, etc. uol-en-s//, //uol-ent-is// “wanting”
  
 +[wuł-] in
  
-<code> +    * //uul-t// “he want”, //uul-tis// “you want”
-uol-ō “I want”, uolu-mus “we want”, uol-unt  “they want”, uol-ēba-m “I wanted”, uol-ēbā-s, etc. uol-a-m “I shall want”, uol-ē-s, etc. uol-en-s, uol-ent-is “wanting” +
-</code>+
  
 +but [wel-] in
  
-[wuł-] in+    * //uel-i-m, uel-ī-s, etc.// and //uel-le-m, uel-lē-s, etc.//
  
  
-<code> +In the second Person of the present //infectum//, the morphological segment //uel-// is replaced by a segment //uī-//hence //uī-s// “you want” (cf. //in-uī-tus// “not wishing, unwilling”), probably because the consonantal group [ls#] is almost impossible in Latin, //puls, lt-is// “a kind of porridge” quoted by Touratier (2005, p. 127, n. 2) and //uls// “on the farther side of” being the only two examples found in the data basis itinera electronic. In //perfectum// it is the allomorph //uolu-// that is used with the //perfectum// morphological segment /uis ~ u/
-uul-t “he want”uul-tis “you want” +
-&lt;/code>+
  
  
-but [wel-] in+    * //uolŭ-ī// “I wanted” corresponding to [wołu-w-i:], //uolŭ-is-tī// to [wołu-wis-ti:], etc.
  
  
-<code> +    * **7.10.3.2. The compounds**
-uel-i-m, uel-ī-s, etcand uel-le-m, uel-lē-s, etc. +
-</code>+
  
 +The two compound verbs /no:n uel/ “be unwilling, will not” and /ma:-uel/ “be more willing, prefer”,  the principal parts of which are:
  
-In the second Person of the present infectum, the morphological segment uel- is replaced by a segment uī-, hence uī-s “you want” (cf. in-uī-tus “not wishingunwilling”), probably because the consonantal group [ls#] is almost impossible in Latin, puls, lt-is “a kind of porridge” quoted by Touratier (2005p. 127, n. 2) and uls “on the farther side of” being the only two examples found in the data basis itinera electronic. In perfectum it is the allomorph uoluthat is used with the perfectum morphological segment /uis ~ u/: uolŭ-ī “I wanted” corresponding to [wołu-w-i:]uolŭ-is-tī to [wołu-wis-ti:], etc.+    * //nōl-ōnōn uī-s, nōlŭ-īnōl-le/\\ //māl-ō, mā--smālŭ-ī, māl-le// 
  
 +exactly follow the same conjugation as the simple verb, but show moreover an allomorph that cancels the begin of the simple verb every time that it would receive an intermediate realization, //i. e.// [e] or [o], hence //māl-ō//, realization of /ma:-uol-ō/, //māl-unt//, realization of /ma:-uol-unt/, //māl-ēba-m//, realization of /ma:-uol-e:ba:-m/, //māl-a-m//¸ realization of /ma:-uol-a:-m/,  \\ //māl-i-m//, realization of /ma:-uel-i-m/, //māl-le-m//¸ realization of /ma:-uel-le:-m/, //mā-le//, realization of /ma:-uel-le/.  \\ //nōl-ō//, realization of /no:n uol-o:/, //nōl-unt//, realization of /no:n uol-unt/, //nōl-ēba-m//, realization of /no:n uol-e:ba:-m/, //nōl-a-m//¸ realization of /no:n uol-a:-m/, \\ //nōl-i-m//, realization of /no:n uel-i-m/, //nōl-le-m//¸ realization of /no:n uel-le:-m/, //nō-le//, realization of /no:n uel-le/, beside these three forms:
  
-<code> +    * //mā-uī-s, mā-uul-t//, and //mā-uul-tis// \\ //nōn uī-s, nōn uul-t, nōn uul-tis//
-      2. The compounds +
-</code>+
  
 +which use another allomorph than uel- or uol-.
  
-The two compound verbs /no:n uel“be unwillingwill not” and /ma:-uel“be more willing, prefer”,  the principal parts of which are:+    * **7.10.4. The verb //e-ōī-re//**
  
 +Having the following principal parts:
  
-<code> +    * //e-ō, ī-s, i-ī -u-ī)ĭ-t-um, ī-re//
-nōl-ō, nōn uī-s, nōlŭ, nōl-le +
-māl-ō--smālŭ-ī, māl-le +
-</code>+
  
 +it is a member of the 2nd conjugation, like its morph //ī-// shows in the second person of the so-called present (//ī-s//) and in the infinitive (//ī-re//), but it uses the imperfect and future morphological segment of the 1st conjugation:
  
-exactly follow the same conjugation as the simple verb, but show moreover an allomorph that cancels the begin of the simple verb every time that it would receive an intermediate realization, i. e. [e] or [o], hence māl-ō, realization of /ma:-uol-ō/, māl-unt, realization of /ma:-uol-unt/, māl-ēba-m, realization of /ma:-uol-e:ba:-m/, māl-a-m¸ realization of /ma:-uol-a:-m/,  māl-i-m, realization of /ma:-uel-i-m/, māl-le-m¸ realization of /ma:-uel-le:-m/-le, realization of /ma:-uel-le/. nōl, realization of /no:n uol-o:/, nōl-unt, realization of /no:n uol-unt/, nōl-ēba-mrealization of /no:n uol-e:ba:-m/, nōl-a-m¸ realization of /no:n uol-a:-m/, nōl-i-m, realization of /no:n uel-i-m/, nōl-le-m¸ realization of /no:n uel-le:-m/, nō-le, realization of /no:n uel-le/, beside these three forms:+    * //ī-ba-m// “I went”, //ī--sī-b-ō// “I shall go”, //ī-bi-setc.//
  
  
-<code> +In the participleit uses the expected segment //-ent-// of the 2nd conjugationfor the singular nominative and neuter accusativebut an allomorph //-unt-// for the other cases: 
-mā-uī-s-uul-t, and mā-uul-tis +
-nōn uī-snōn uul-t, nōn uul-tis +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //i-en-s// “going (Nom. masc. or neut.)”, //e-unt-is// “going (Gen.)”,…, //e-unt-em// (Acc. masc.), but //i-en-s// “going (Acc.neut.)”, //etc.// 
 +    * 
  
-which use another allomorph than uelor uol-.+In low Latin, the analogical genitive //i-ent-is// was created (cf. //ientibus// in C.I.L. VI, 10241, 12)
  
 +The gerund has an allomorph //-und-// instead of the expected form //-end-//:
  
-<code> +    * //ad e-und-um// “in order to go”//tempus e-und-ī/“time to go”;
-D. The verb e-ōī-re +
-</code>;+
  
 +Beside these conjugation anomalies, the verb //ī-re// shows an allomorph //e-// that is phonologically conditioned: it appears before a vowel, different from //e//. Thus //e-ō// “I go”, //e-unt// “they go”, //e-unt-is// “going (Gen.)”, //e-und-um// , //e-a-m// “I may go”, //e-ā-s//
  
-Having the following principal parts:+but
  
 +    * //i-en-s// “going (Nom.)”, phonetic realization of /i:-ent-s/.  Before a consonant, it is therefore the allomorph /i:/:
  
-<code> 
-e-ō, ī-s, i-ī (ī-u-ī), ĭ-t-um, ī-re 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //ī-ba-m, ī-b-ō, ī-re, ī-re-m,//
  
-it is member of the 2nd conjugationlike its morph ī- shows in the second person of the so-called present (ī-s) and in the infinitive (ī-re)but it uses the imperfect and future morphological segment of the 1st conjugation:+which receives short realization before a vowelas in the perefect //i//, the pluperfect //i-er-am// or the future perfect //i-er-ō//. The verb //ī-re// has another allomorph /i/which is not an allophone of /i:/, in the supine //ĭ-t-um//, and the so-called future participle //ĭ-tūr-us//.  
  
 +In the //perfectum//, the verb //ī-re// regularly uses the morphological segment / … is/:
  
-<code> +    * //i-ī, i-is-i-i-ti-i-musi-is-tisi-er-unt// phonetic realization of /i:-is-unt/
-ī-ba-m “I went”ī--sī-b-ō “I shall go”ī-bi-setc. +
-</code>+
  
 +without the contraction of //ii// which would lead to a confusion with the present //i-t//, //i-mus//; //ii// before //s// is regularly contracted to //ī//: as //īsse// (= /i:-is-se/), //īstī// (= /i:-is-ti:/), because a confusion with the present is not possible. But a rare perfect in //-uis-// was created particularly in poetry (Cat., 66,12: //ī-uer-a-t//), maybe in order to avoid the tribrach //ĭ-ěr-ăt//.
  
-In the participle, it uses the expected segment -ent- of the 2nd conjugation, for the singular nominative and neuter accusative, but an allomorph -unt- for the other cases: i-en-s “going (Nom. masc. or neut.)”, e-unt-is “going (Gen.)”,…, e-unt-em (Acc. masc.), but i-en-s “going (Acc.neut.)”, etc. In low Latin, the analogical genitive i-ent-is was created (cf. ientibus in C.I.L. VI, 10241, 12). The gerund has an allomorph -und- instead of the expected form -end-: 
  
  
-<code> +    * **The compound verbs //ad-eō// “approach”** and //in-eō/“enter” are transitive and can be inflected in the passive:
-ad e-und-um “in order to go”, tempus e-und-ī “time to go”; +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ad-eor, ad-ī-ris, ad-ī-tur, ad-ī-mur, ad-ī-minī, ad-e-untur// \\ impf. //ad-ī-ba-r//, fut. //ad-ī-bo-r//, subj. //ad-e-a-r//, impf. Subj. //ad-ī-re-r// \\ inf. //ad-ī-rī//, part. //ad-i-t-us//, gerundive //ad-e-und-us// \\ //perfectum ad-i-t-us su-m, er-a-m, er-ō, s-i-m, es-se-m.//
  
-Beside these conjugation anomalies, the verb ī-re shows an allomorph e- that is phonologically conditioned: it appears before a vowel, different from e. Thus e-ō “I go”e-unt “they go”, e-unt-is “going (Gen.)”, e-und-um , e-a-m “I may go”e-ā-s+The simple verb //e-ō// has also some passive formsbut used impersonally: //ī-tur// “some one goes (it is gone)”, //i-t-um est// “some one went”and //ī-rī// (cf. p. 76 the so-called passive future infinitive). Plautus has form of passive infinitive //irier//((Plaut//Rud.// 1242: //Mihi istaec uidetur praeda praedatum irier// “this appears to  be plunder that will soon be plundered from you again” (Cleveland K. Chase, 1919))) . 
  
 +The verb //uēne-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī//  “be sold” (for //uēnum ī-re// “go to sale”), which is used as a passive of //uend-ō, i-s//, //did-ī, di-t-um, e-re// “sell”, follows the conjugation of //e-ō//, and has also several forms in the passive, as the infinitive //ueniri//((Plaut., //Pers.// 577-8 : //Veniri hanc uolo, Si potest// “I want her to be sold, if possible”.)).
 + 
 +The verbs //neque-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī, ī-re// “be unable to”, and //que-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī, ī-re// “be able to”, follow also the conjugation of //e-ō//, which they are compound (//neque-ō// is probably derived from an impersonal phrase //%%*%%neque itur// “it does not go well”, and //que-ō// by backformation from  //neque-ō//).
  
-<code> 
-but 
-</code> 
  
  
-i-en-s “going (Nom.)”, phonetic realization of /i:-ent-s/.  Before a consonant, it is therefore the allomorph /i:/:+   * **7.10.5. The verb //fie-//** 
 +  
 +    * “1) be made → 2) become”
  
 +This verb, the principal parts of which are: 
  
-<code> +    * //fī-ō, -s,fac-t-us su-m,  fierī//  
- ī-ba-m, ī-b-ō, ī-reī-re-m, +  
-</code>+is the passive of 
  
 +    * //faciō, i-s, fēc-ī, fac-t-um, face-re// “make”
  
-which receives a short realization before a vowel, as in the perefect i-ī, the pluperfect i-er-am or the future perfect i-er. The verb ī-re has another allomorph /i/, which is not an allophone of /i:/, in the supine ĭ-t-um, and the so-called future participle ĭ-tūr-us. In the perfectum, the verb ī-re regularly uses the morphological segment … is/:+which is regular. But it has the imperative //fac//and the perfectum future //fax-ō//, and //perfectum// subjunctive //fax-i-m//, besides the regular forms //fēc-er-ō// and //fēc-er-i-m//.  
  
 +As for //fī-ō//, its //infectum// system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is //fierem//, and the infinitive //fierī//. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb shows, in //infectum//, an allomorph /fi:i/ and in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”, which is really the passive of “make”, and thus it needs no Passive morphem, which nevertheless appears in the infinitive //fie-rī//. In the //perfectum//, it is the supine of the verb //faci-ō// “make” that is used; in order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the //perfectum// or the person unit.  
  
-<code> +The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the //ī// de //fīō// which doesn’t become short before a voweland the expected short //ǐ// of //fierem// and //fierī//, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, //fie-rem// corresponding to //cape-rem//but with one additional //i//, and //fie-rī// to //audī-rī//but with one additional //e//. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:i/ in the //infectum//, then in /fi:i-o:/ the short //i//which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence //fī-ō//. And sofor //fī-unt//, //fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s//, //etc.// But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short //i// is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /s/ being between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i/ ~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long //ī// before this vowel receives a bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled //fierem//. And so, /fi:i-ri:/ with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination //-// of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  
-i-ī, i-is-, i-i-t, i-i-mus, i-is-tis, i-er-unt phonetic realization of /i:-is-unt/ +
-</code>+
  
 +As for the other persons of the so-called present, //fī-s// corresponds to /fi:i-s/ which  is realized [fi:-s] spelled //fis//, because the obligatory contraction into a long //ī// of two //i// not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long //ī//, there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than //s//, hence the phonetic realization [fit].
  
-without the contraction of ii which would lead to a confusion with the present i-t, i-mus; ii before s is regularly contracted to ī: as īsse (= /i:-is-se), īstī (= /i:-is-ti:/), because a confusion with the present is not possible. But a rare perfect in -uis- was created particularly in poetry (Cat., 66,12: ī-uer-a-t), maybe in order to avoid the tribrach ĭ-ěr-ăt. 
  
  
-<code> +**Most compounds of //faci-ō//** show the morphological alternations /a/ ~ /i/ in an open syllableand /a/ ~ /e/ in closed syllablewhich are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophonyare inflectd in the following way:
- The compound verbs ad-eō “approach” and in-eō “enter” are transitive and can be inflected in the passive: +
-ad-eor, ad-ī-ris, ad-ī-tur, ad-ī-mur, ad-ī-minī, ad-e-untur +
-impf. ad-ī-ba-r, fut. ad-ī-bo-r, subj. ad-e-a-r, impf. Subj. ad-ī-re-r +
-inf. ad-ī-rī, part. ad-i-t-usgerundive ad-e-und-us +
-perfectum ad-i-t-us su-m, er-a-mer-ōs-i-m, es-se-m. +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um, -fice-re// « finish »
  
-The simple verb e-ō has also some passive forms, but used impersonally: ī-tur “some one goes (it is gone)”, i-t-um est “some one went”, and ī-rī (cf. p. 76 the so-called passive future infinitive). Plautus has a form of passive infinitive irier . The verb uēne-ō, ī-s, i-ī or ī-u-ī  “be sold” (for uēnum ī-re “go to sale”), which is used as a passive of uend-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re “sell”, follows the conjugation of e-ō, and has also several forms in the passive, as the infinitive ueniri . The verbs neque-ō, ī-s, i-ī or ī-u-ī, ī-re “be unable to”, and que-ō, ī-s, i-ī or ī-u-ī, ī-re “be able to”, follow also the conjugation of e-ō, which they are compound (neque-ō is probably derived from an impersonal phrase %%*%%neque itur “it does not go well”, and que-ō by backformation from  neque-ō).+and in the passive:
  
 +    * //con-fici-or, -fice-ris, -fec-t-us su-m, fic-ī.//
  
-<code> +But a few isolated forms of //fī-ō// can occur in these verbs: //confit// “it happens”, //dēfit// “it lacks”, //inter-fī-a-t// “let him perish”, //inter-fie-rī// “to perish”. 
-E. The verb fie-rī “1) be made → 2) become” +
-</code>+
  
 +Some compounds retain the //a//¸ and normally have //-fi-ō// in the passive: as, //pate-faci-ō// “to make visible", //cale-faci-ō// “make hot”, //bene-faci-ō// “do a service to”, //satis-faci-ō// “give  satisfaction”. 
  
-This verbthe principal parts of which are:  fī-ōfī-s,fac-t-us su-m fierī is the passive of+But occasionly occur //calfacientur// (Vitr. 5,10,1)//satisfacitur// (Var.,// Men.//,82)
  
  
-<code> 
-faciō, i-s, fēc-ī, fac-t-um, face-re “make” 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.6. The verb //ed-ō, i-s, ēd-ī, ē-s-um, e-re//, “eat”**
  
-which is regular. But it has the imperative fac, and the perfectum future fax-ō, and perfectum subjunctive fax-i-m, besides the regular forms fēc-er-ō and fēc-er-i-m.  As for fī-ō, its infectum system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is fierem, and the infinitive fierī. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb shows, in infectum, an allomorph /fi:i/ and in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”, which is really the passive of “make”, and thus it needs no Passive morphem, which nevertheless appears in the infinitive fie-rī. In the perfectum, it is the supine of the verb faci-ō “make” that is used; in order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the perfectum or the person unit.  The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the ī de fīō which doesn’t become short before a vowel, and the expected short ǐ of fierem and fierī, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, fie-rem corresponding to cape-rem, but with one additional i, and fie-rī to audī-rī, but with one additional e. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:i/ in the infectum, then in /fi:i-o:/ the short i, which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence fī-ō. And so, for fī-unt, fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s, etc. But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short i is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /s/ being between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i/ ~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long ī before this vowel receives a bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled fierem. And so, /fi:i-ri:/ with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination -rī of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  As for the other persons of the so-called present, fī-s corresponds to /fi:i-s/ which  is realized [fi:-s] spelled fis, because the obligatory contraction into a long ī of two i not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long ī, there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than s, hence the phonetic realization [fit].+which must not be confused with the verb
  
 +    * //ēd-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re// “eject, emit”,
  
-<code> +has become a regular verb of the 2a conjugation; but besides the forms in //i// it shows some forms without //i// but with an initial long //ē//, whereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with a short e   
- Most compounds of faci-ō show the morphological alternations /a/i/ in an open syllable, and /a/ein a closed syllablewhich are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophony, are inflectd in the following way: +
-con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um, -fice-re « finish » +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ē-s// beside //edi-s//, //ēs-se-m// beside //ede-re-m//, phonetic realization of /edi-se:-m/, //ēs-se// beside //ede-re// phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  
  
-and in the passive:+which can be descripted by a variant /e:d/ immediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of //%%*%%ed-s// > //%%*%%ēs-s// (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel((cf.  Niedermann, Max, 1953 , //Phon. historique//, p. 69.)) ), and finally //%%*%%ēs-s// > //ēs// ((Cf. Niedemann, 19533, p. 121.))), and //%%*%%ed-tos// > //%%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus//((Cf Niedermann, 1953, p. 149.)) ,// ēsus//((Cf. Niedermann, 19533, p. 148)). But there are also
  
 +//ēst, ēstis//, (the passive //ēs-tur//) beside //edi-t, edi-tis// (and //edi-tur//),
  
-<code> 
-       con-fici-or, -fice-ris, -fec-t-us su-m, fic-ī. 
-</code> 
  
 +which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from //%%*%%ed-tis//, as they should have become //%%*%%ēs// and //%%*%%ēsis//, and not //ēs-t// and //ēs-tis//; but “the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes((Cf. Niedermann, 1953, p. 148)) . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in //i// (cf. //s-i-m// and //uel-i-m//), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in //-i-m//, beside the expected subjunctive in //-a-//:
  
-But a few isolated forms of fī-ō can occur in these verbs: confit “it happens”, dēfit “it lacks”, inter-fī-a-t “let him perish”, inter-fie-rī “to perish”. Some compounds retain the a¸ and normally have -fi-ō in the passive: as, pate-faci-ō “to make visible", cale-faci-ō “make hot”, bene-faci-ō “do a service to”, satis-faci-ō “give  satisfaction”. But occasionly occur calfacientur (Vitr. 5,10,1), satisfacitur (Var., Men. 
  
 +    * //ed-i-m, ed-ī-s, ed-i-t//, //etc.// beside //ed- a-m, ed-ā-s, ed-a-t, etc.//
  
-<code> +The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age; “Horatius always uses //edim//Ovidius //edam//” (according to Ernout19533p. 184).
-                F. The verb ed-ōi-sēd-īē-s-um, e-re, “eat” +
-</code>+
  
  
-which must not be confused with the verb 
  
 + So the verb //ed-ō// is conjugated in following way:
  
-<code> 
-ēd-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re “eject, emit”, 
-</code> 
  
  
-has become regular verb of the 2a conjugation; but besides the forms in it shows some forms without i but with an initial long ēwhereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with short e   ē-s beside edi-s, ēs-se-m beside ede-re-mphonetic realization of /edi-se:-m/, ēs-se beside ede-re phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  which can be descripted by a variant /e:dimmediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of %%*%%ed-s > %%*%%ēs-s (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel )and finally %%*%%ēs-s > ēs )and %%*%%ed-tos > %%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus ēsus But there are also+PRESENT: //ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt// \\ IMPERFECT: //ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc.// \\ SUBJUNCTIVE: //ed-a-m, (ed-i-m)ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc.// \\ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE //ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-mede--setc.// being secondary and analogical((//Ederent// is nevertheless found in Gel. 19,2,7.)) ) \\ IMPERATIVE//ēs, ēs-te// \\  FUTURE IMPERATIVE: //ēs-tōēs-tō-te, ed-untō// \\ INFINITIVE: //ēs-se// (//ede-re// being secondary and analogical) \\ PERFECT INFINITIVE: //ēd-is-se// \\  GERUND: //ed-end-īd-ōd-um// \\ SUPINE: //ēs-um, ēs-ū// \\ FUTURE PARTICIPLE: //esūr-us//((Plaut//Men.// 147 : //Vbi essuri sumus ?// “Where are we going to eat?”)).
  
  
-<code> 
-ēst, ēstis, (the passive ēs-tur) beside edi-t, edi-tis (and edi-tur), 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.7. The verb //d-ō// “give”** is regularly conjugated like //am-ō, amā-s//, but it has an //ă// everywhere //am-ō// has an //ā//, except in the present //dā-s// and the imperative //dā//. Thus it is conjugated in the following way:
  
-which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from %%*%%ed-tis, as they should have become %%*%%ēs and %%*%%ēsis, and not ēs-t and ēs-tis; but“the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in i (cf. s-i-m and uel-i-m), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in -i-m, beside the expected subjunctive in -a-: 
  
 +in the present: //d-ō, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt// \\ in the other tenses and moods: //dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.// \\  in the passive: //da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc.//
  
-<code> +If the subjunctive //d-e-m, d-ē-s, d-e-t// is classicalarchaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive:
-ed-i-m, ed-ī-s, ed-i-t, etc. beside ed- a-m, ed-ā-s, ed-a-t, etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age; “Horatius always uses edimOvidius edam” (according to Ernout19533p184).+    * Plaut.//Amph.// 72: //Duint// Plaut., //Capt.// 947: //ne duīs// , Plaut.//Aul.// 238: //ne duās//
  
  
-<code> 
- So the verb ed-ō is conjugated in following way: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.11. Classified lists of verbs**
  
-PRESENT    ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt   IMPERFECT ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc. SUBJUNCTIVE ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc. being secondary and analogical ) IMPERATIVE ēs, ēs-te FUTURE IMPERATIVE ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō INFINITIVE ēs-se (ede-re being secondary and analogical)  PERFECT INFINITIVE ēd-is-se GERUND ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um SUPINE ēs-um, ēs-ū  FUTURE PARTICIPLE esūr-us . 
  
 +    * **7.11.1. The first conjugation**
  
-<code> 
- G. The verb d-ō “give” is regularly conjugated like am-ō, amā-s, but it has an ă everywhere am-ō has an ā, except in the present dā-s and the imperative dā. Thus it is conjugated in the following way: 
-in the present: d-ō, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt 
-in the other tenses and moods: dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.  
-in the passive: da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.11.1.1.** The 1st conjugation
  
-If the subjunctive d-e-m, d-ē-s, d-e-t is classical, archaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive: 
  
  
-<code> +There are “about 570 verbs in //-ē-//among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout1953p.143
-Duint (Plaut.Amph. 72), ne duīs (Plaut.Capt. 947)ne duās (Plaut., Aul. 238)+
-</code> +
-<code> +
- 11. Classified lists of verbs +
- A. The first conjugation +
- 1. The 1st conjugation +
-</code>+
  
 +    * 7.11.1.1.1. Most of these verbs are inflected like //mone-ō// “warn”, //ŭ-ī, i-t-um//:
  
-There are “about 570 verbs in -ē-, among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.143) a. Most of these verbs are inflected like mone-ō “warn”, ŭ-ī, i-t-um: cale-ō “be warm”, debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etc. b. some have certainly a perfetum in ŭ-ī, but no supine in i-tum time-ō “fear”, timŭ-ī, ─ care-ō “lack”, carŭ-ī, ─ ege-ō “need”, egŭ-ī, ─ cense-ō “value”, cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um doce-ō “teach”, docŭ-ī, doc-t-um misce-ō “mix”, miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um tene-ō “hold“, tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um torre-ō “roast“, torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um c. Some of these have the same morph in all the form systems: dele-ō “destroy”, dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um fle-ō “weep”, flē-re¸ flē-u-ī, flē-t-um ne-ō “sew”, nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um com-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um ex-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um im-ple-ō “fill”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um re-ple-ō “fill again”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um+    *  //cale-ō// “be warm”, //debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etc.//  
 +      
 +    * 7.11.1.1.2. some have certainly a //perfetum// in //ŭ-ī//, but no supine in //i-tum// 
 +  
 +    *  //time-ō// “fear”, //timŭ-ī//, ─  \\ //care-ō// “lack”, //carŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //ege-ō// “need”, //egŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //cense-ō// “value”, //cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um// \\ //doce-ō// “teach”, //docŭ-ī, doc-t-um// \\ //misce-ō// “mix”, //miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um// \\ //tene-ō// “hold“, //tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um// \\ //torre-ō// “roast“, //torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um//  
 +     
 +    * 7.11.1.1.3. Some of these have the same morph in all the form systems: 
  
 +    * //dele-ō// “destroy”, //dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um// \\ //fle-ō// “weep”, //flē-re//¸ //flē-u-ī, flē-t-um// \\  //ne-ō// “sew”, //nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um// \\ //com-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //ex-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //im-ple-ō// “fill”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //re-ple-ō// “fill again”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um//.
  
-<code> 
-             d. some of these have a reduplication perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * 7.11.1.1.4. some of these have a reduplication //perfectum//:
  
-morde-ō “bite”, mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um pende-ō “hang”, pe-pend-ī, ─ sponde-ō “pledge”, spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um tonde-ō “shear”, to-tond-ī (tond-ī), tōn-s-um+    * //morde-ō// “bite”, //mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um// \\ //pende-ō// “hang”, //pe-pend-ī, ─ // \\ //sponde-ō// “pledge”, //spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um// \\  //tonde-ō// “shear”, //to-tond-ī (tond-ī), tōn-s-um//.
  
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.1.1.5. a number of these has a sigmatic //perfectum//:
-   e. a number of these has a sigmatic perfectum+
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ārde-ō, ār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us// \\ //rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um// \\ //suāde-ō// “urge”, //suā-s-ī, suā-s-um// \\ //haere-ō// “cling”, //hae-s-ī, hae-s-um// \\ //mane-ō// “wait”, //man-s-ī, man-s-um// \\ //fulge-ō// “shine”, //ful-s-ī, ─// \\ //torque-ō// “twist”, //tor-s-ī, tor-t-um// \\ //indulge-ō// “indulge”, //indul-s-ī, indul-t-um// \\ //iube-ō// “order”, //ius-s-ī, ius-s-um// \\  //auge-ō// “increase”, //aux-ī, auc-t-um// \\ //lūce-ō// “shine”, //lūx-ī, ─//. 
 +     
 +    * 7.11.1.1.6. some have a lengthening //perfectum//:
  
-ārde-ō, ār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um suāde-ō “urge”, suā-s-ī, suā-s-um haere-ō “cling”, hae-s-ī, hae-s-um mane-ō “wait”, man-s-ī, man-s-um fulge-ō “shine”, ful-s-ī, ─ torque-ō “twist”, tor-s-ī, tor-t-um indulge-ō “indulge”, indul-s-ī, indul-t-um  iube-ō “order”, ius-s-ī, ius-s-um auge-ō “increase”, aux-ī, auc-t-um lūce-ō “shine”, lūx-ī, ─ f. some have a lengthening perfectum caue-ō “care”, cāu-ī, cau-t-um faue-ō “favor”, fāu-ī, fau-t-um foue-ō, “cherish”, fōu-ī, fō-t-um moue-ō “move”, mōu-ī, mō-t-um uoue-ō “vow“, uōu-ī, uō-t-um sede-ō “sit”, sēd-ī, ses-s-um uide-ō “see“, uīd-ī, uī-s-um g. three are semi-deponent: aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m sole-ō “be wont“, soli-t-us su-m+    * //caue-ō// “care”, //cāu-ī, cau-t-um// \\ //faue-ō// “favor”, //fāu-ī, fau-t-um// \\ //foue-ō//, “cherish”, //fōu-ī, fō-t-um// \\ //moue-ō// “move”, //mōu-ī, mō-t-um// \\ //uoue-ō// “vow“, //uōu-ī, uō-t-um// \\ //sede-ō// “sit”, //sēd-ī, ses-s-um// \\ //uide-ō// “see“, //uīd-ī, uī-s-um//. 
 +     
 +    *  7.11.1.1.7. three are semi-deponent: 
  
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m// \\ //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// \\ //sole-ō// “be wont“, //soli-t-us su-m//
  
-2. The 1a. conjugation There are “about 3620 verbs in -ā-, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.138) 
  
 +    * **7.11.1.2. The 1a. conjugation.** There are “about 3620 verbs in //-ā-//, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.138)
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.1.2.1. most of these verbs have only two allomorphs, like //amā- ~ am-//
- a. most of these verbs have only two allomorphs, like amā- ~ am- +
- b. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.2. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum:
  
-dă-re “give”, de-d-ī, dă-t-um stā-re “stand”, ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us  c. some verbs have a prefectum in ŭ-ī: crepā-re “resound”, crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um cubā-re “be in bed”, cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um domā-re “subdue”, domŭ-ī, domi-t-um secā-re “cut”, secŭ-ī, sec-t-um sonā-re “sound”, sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um tonā-re “thunder“, tonŭ-ī, ─ uetā-re “forbid”, uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um+    * //dă-re// “give”, //de-d-ī, dă-t-um// \\ //stā-re// “stand”, //ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us// 
 +  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.3. some verbs have a //perfectum// in //ŭ-ī//: 
 +   
 +    * //crepā-re// “resound”, //crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um// \\ //cubā-re// “be in bed”, //cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um// \\ //domā-re// “subdue”, //domŭ-ī, domi-t-um// \\ //secā-re// “cut”, //secŭ-ī, sec-t-um// \\ //sonā-re// “sound”, //sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um// \\ //tonā-re// “thunder“, //tonŭ-ī, ─ // \\ //uetā-re// “forbid”, //uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um//.
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.4. one verb with a lengthening perfectum
  
-<code> +    * //iuuā-re// “help”, //iūu-ī, iū-t-um//
-         d. one verb with a lengthening perfectum +
-</code>+
  
 +    * **7.11.2. The 2nd  conjugation**
  
-iuuā-re “help”, iūu-ī, iū-t-um+    * **7.11.2.1. The 2nd conjugation**
  
 +There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in //-ŭri-ō//, among  which only two are in common usage: //par-turī-re// “be in labor” from //pari-ō// “bring forth”, and //ēsurī-re// “be hungry” from //ed-ō// “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives //ī-re// (according to Mignot, 1969, //Les verbes dénominatifs latins//, p. 51) 
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.1.1.: Verbs with a //-uis- perfectum//: 
-BThe 2nd  conjugation +   
-  1. The 2nd conjugation +    *  audī-re, \\ //sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum// “bury”; \\ //cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re// “wish for, desire”; \\ //sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re// “have a taste, show good sense”,”  
-</code>;+      
 +    * 7.11.2.1.2. Verbs in //ŭī//:  
 +     
 +    * //aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum// “open”, \\ //operī-re, uī, tum// “cover”, \\ //salī-re, uī, tum// “jump, leap”\\ //rapi-ō, e-re, uī, t-um// “take away”.
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.3. Verbs with lengthening //perfectum//: 
  
-There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in -ŭri-ō, among  which only two are in common usage:  par-turī-re “be in labor” from pari-ō “bring forth”and ēsurī-re “be hungry” from ed-ō “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives ī-re (according to Mignot, 1969, Les verbes dénominatifs latins, p. 51) a. Verbs with a -uis- perfectum: audī-re,  sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum “bury”cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-ume-re “wish for, desire”sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re “have a tasteshow good sense”,” b. Verbs in ŭī: aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum “open”operī-re, uī, tum “cover”,  salī-retum “jump, leap”; rapi-ōe-re, u¬¬ī, t-um “take away”+    * //uenī-re, uēn-ī, uen-tum// “come”\\ //fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sumfode-re// “dig”\\ //faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tumface-re// “make”; \\ //iaci-ōiēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re// “throw”; \\  //fugi-ōfūg-īfugi-tūr-usfuge-re// “flee”.
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.4. Verbs with sigmatic //perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum)// “stuff”; \\  //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum//, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (//haurī-// //%%*%%hausi-//), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine). \\ //sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum// “patch”, \\ //sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum// “feel”, \\ //uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum// “bind” \\ //quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re// “shake”\\ //concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re// “shake”\\ //percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re// “strike forcibly hit”. \\ 
-c. Verbs with lengthening perfectumuenī-re, uēn-ī, uen-tum “come”; +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re “dig”; faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re “make”; iaci-ō, iēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re “throw”; fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re “flee”+    * 7.11.2.1.5. Verbs with Reduplication //perfectum//:
  
  
-<code> +    * //pari-o, pe-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re// “give birth to, bear”
-dVerbs with sigmatic prefectum: +   
-</code>+
  
 +    * **7.11.2.2. The 2a conjugation**
  
-farcī-refar-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum) “stuff”;  haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (haurī- < %%*%%hausi-), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine).  sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum “patch”, sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum “feel”, uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum “bind” quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re “shake”; concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re “shake”percuti-ō-cus-sī-cus-sum,-cute-re “strike forcibly hit”.+“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in allabout 2400 verbs” (Ernout1953p124) 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.1. with sigmatic //perfectum//: stem ending with a bilabial: 
 + 
 +    * //carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum// “pluck”; \\ //rēp-ō// “creep”, //rēp-s-ī, ─ //; \\   //scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum// “scrape”; \\ //sculp-ō// “carve”, //sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;// \\ //serp-ō// “crawl”, //serp-s-ī, ─//; 
 + 
 +stem ending with a voiced bilabial: 
  
-<code> +    * //nūb-ō// “marry”, //nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum//; \\  //scrīb-ō// “write”, //scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum//. 
-e. Verbs with Reduplication perfectum: +
-</code>;+
  
 +stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: 
  
-pari-ope-per-ī, par-tumpare-re “give birth tobear”.+    * //cēd-ō// “yield”//ces-s-ī, ces-sum//; \\ //claud-ō// “shut”//clau-s-īclaus-sum//; \\ //dīuid-ō// “divide”, //dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum//; \\ //frend-ō// “gnash”,// ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum)//; \\ //laed-ō// “hurt”, //lae-s-ī, lae-sum//; \\ //lūd-ō// “play”, //lūd-ī, lū-sum//; \\ //plaud-ō// “applaud”, //plau-s-ī, plau-sum//; \\ //rād-ō// “scrape”, //rā-s-ī, rā-sum//; \\   //rōd-ō// “gnaw”, //rō-s-ī, rō-sum//; \\ //trūd-ō// “thrust”, //trū-s-ī, trū-sum//; \\ //uād-ō// “go”, //uā-s-ī, uā-sum//. \\ //mitt-ō// “send”, //mī-s-ī// (= /mi:t-s-i:/), //mis-sum// (= /mit-sum/); \\ //omitt-ō// “release from”, //omī-s-ī, omis-sum//.
  
 +stem ending with  a velar: 
  
-<code> +    * //dīc-ō// “say”, //dīx-ī, dic-tum//\\ //dūc-ō// “guide”, //dūx-ī, duc-tum//;
-2. The 2a conjugation +
-<;/code>;+
  
 +stem ending with a voiced velar: 
  
-“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 19533, p. 124) a. with sigmatic perfectum: stem ending with a bilabial: carp, carp-s-ī, carp-tum “pluck”; rēp-ō “creep”, rēp-s-ī, ─ ;  scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum “scrape”; sculp-ō “carve”, sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;  serp-ō “crawl”, serp-s-ī, ─; stem ending with a voiced bilabial: nūb-ō “marry”, nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum;  scrīb-ō “write”, scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum. stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: cēd-ō “yield”, ces-s-ī, ces-sum; claud-ō “shut”, clau-s-ī, claus-sum; dīuid-ō “divide”, dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum; frend-ō “gnash”, ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum);  laed-ō “hurt”, lae-s-ī, lae-sum;  lūd-ō “play”, lūd-ī, lū-sum; plaud-ō “applaud”, plau-s-ī, plau-sum; rād-ō “scrape”, rā-s-ī, rā-sum;  rōd-ō “gnaw”, rō-s-ī, rō-sum; trūd-ō “thrust”, trū-s-ī, trū-sum; uād-ō “go”, uā-s-ī, uā-sum. mitt-ō “send”, mī-s-ī (= /mi:t-s-i:/)mis-sum (= /mit-sum/); omitt-ō “release from”, omī-s-ī, omis-sum.    stem ending with  a velar: dīc-ō “say”, dīx-ī, dic-tum; dūc-ō “guide”, dūx-ī, duc-tum; stem ending with a voiced velar: ang-ō “choke”, ānx-ī, ─; cing-ō “bind”, cinx-ī, cinc-tum; ēmung-ō “clean out”, -mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum; fīg-ō “fix”, fīx-ī, fīx-um; fing-ō “fashion”, finx-ī, fic-tum; -flīg-ō “smite”, -flīx-ī, -flīc-tum;  frig-ō “fry”, frīx-ī, frīc-tum; iung-ō “join”, iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum; perg-ō “go on”, perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum; ping-ō “paint”, pīnx-ī, pic-tum;  plang-ō “beat”, plānx-ī, plānc-tum; reg-ō “rule”, rēx-ī, rēc-tum; string-ō “bind”, strīnx-ī, stric-tum; sūg-ō “suck”, sūx-ī, sūc-tum; surg-ō “rise”, surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum; teg-ō “shelter”, tēx-ī, tēc-tum; ting-ō “stain”, tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum; merg-ō “plunge”, mer-s-ī, mer-sum; sparg-ō “scatter”, spar-s-ī, spar-sum;  terg-ō “wipe”, ter-s-ī, ter-sum; stem ending with  a labiovelar: coqu-ō “cook”, cox-ī, coc-tum; -stingu-ō “quench”, -stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum; ungu-ō (ung-ō) “anoint”, ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum; stem ending with ct: flect-ō “bend”, flex-ī, flex-um; nect-ō “weave”, nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um;  pect-ō “comb”, pex-ī, pex-um; plect-ō “braid”, plex-ī, plec-tum.   stem ending with a nasal:   cōm-ō “comb, deck”, cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum; dēm-ō “take away”, dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum; prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum “press”; prōm-ō “bring out”, prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum; sūm-ō “take”, sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum.  temn-ō “despise”, temp-s-ī, temp-tum.+    * //ang-ō// “choke”, //ānx-ī, ─//\\ //cing-ō// “bind”, //cinx-ī, cinc-tum//\\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//\\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//\\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//\\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//\\   //frig-ō// “fry”, //frīx-ī, frīc-tum//\\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//\\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//\\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//\\  //plang-ō// “beat”, //plānx-ī, plānc-tum//\\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//\\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum// \\ //sūg-ō// “suck”, //sūx-ī, sūc-tum//\\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum//\\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//\\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//\\ //merg-ō// “plunge”, //mer-s-ī, mer-sum//\\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//\\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//
  
 +stem ending with  a labiovelar: 
  
-flu-ō “flow”, flūx-ī, flux-um; stru-ō “build”, strūx-ī, strūc-tum. trah-ō “drag”, trāx-ī, trāc-tum; ueh-ō “draw”, uēx-ī, uec-tum.  uīu-ō “live”, uīx-ī, uīc-tum.  ger-ō “carry”, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (there are two allomorphs /geri/ges/);  ūr-ō “burn”, us-s-ī, us-tum. b. with -uis- or  only -is- Perfectum? acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum “sharpen”; the present acu-ō  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:(cf. acū-tum). As for the perfect acu-ī, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-or /aku-u-i:/.  argu-ō “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), argu-ī, argū-tum; imbu-ō “give a taste of”, imbu-ī, imbū-tum;  lu-ō “wash”, lu-ī, -lū-tum; metu-ō “fear”, metu-ī, metū-tum; minu-ō “lessen”, minu-ī, minū-tum; statu-ō “establish”, statu-ī, statū-tum; su-ō “sew”, su-ī, sū-tum; (ex)u-ō “put off”, u-ī, ū-tum;  tribu-ō “assign”, tribu-ī, tribū-tum; (con)gru-ō  “agree”, gru-ī, ─  ; -nu-ō “nod”, -nu-ī, ─ ; spu-ō “spit”, spu-ī, ─ ; sternu-ō  “sneeze”, sternu-ī, ─ ; ru-ō “fall”, ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us), /ruo:would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is rutum and not %%*%%rūtum. Perfectum in [i:-wis]: arcess-ō “summon”, arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum; capess-ō “undertake”, capessī-u-ī, ─ ;  incess-ō “attack”, incessī-u-ī, ─ ; lacess-ō “provoke”, lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum; pet-ō “seek to obtain”, petī-u-ī or peti-ī, petī-tum; quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum; rud-ō “bray”, rudī-u-ī, ─ ; scisc-ō “decree”, scī-u-ī, scī-tum;  ter-ō “rub”, trī-u-ī, trī-tum. sin-ō “permit”, sī-u-ī, si-tum. perfectum in [u-wis]: al-ō “nourish”, alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum); col-ō “dwell, till”, colu-ī, cultum; compēsc-ō “restrain”, compēscu-ī, ─ ; cōnsul-ō “consult”, cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum; -cumb-ō “lie down”, -cubu-ī, cubi-tum; deps-ō “knead”, dessu-ī, deps-tum; frem-ō “roar”, fremu-ī, ─ ; gem-ō “groan”, gemu-ī, ─ ; gign-ō “beget”, genu-ī, geni-tum; met-ō “reap”, messu-ī, -messum; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /isor /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”, īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+    * //coqu-ō// “cook”, //cox-ī, coc-tum//; \\ //-stingu-ō// “quench”, //-stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum//\\ //ungu-ō (ung-ō)// “anoint”, //ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum//;   
 +  
 +stem ending with //ct//: 
  
 +    * //flect-ō// “bend”, //flex-ī, flex-um//; \\ //nect-ō// “weave”, //nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um//; \\ //pect-ō// “comb”, //pex-ī, pex-um//; \\ //plect-ō// “braid”, //plex-ī, plec-tum //.   
  
-solu-ō “moose, pay”, solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectumcad-ō “fall”, ce-cid-ī, cā-sum; caed-ō “cut”, ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum; can-ō “sing”, ce-cin-ī, can-tum; scind-ō “tear”, scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”, tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum; at-ting-ō “touch”, at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” , conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”, pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”, posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”, prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”, prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+stem ending with a nasal  
  
 +    * //cōm-ō// “comb, deck”, //cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//; \\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//; \\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”; \\ //prōm-ō// “bring out”, //prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//; \\ //sūm-ō// “take”, //sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum//. \\ //temn-ō// “despise”, //temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu-ō// “flow”, //flūx-ī, flux-um//; \\ //stru-ō// “build”, //strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah-ō// “drag”, //trāx-ī, trāc-tum//; \\ //ueh-ō// “draw”, //uēx-ī, uec-tum//. \\  //uīu-ō// “live”, //uīx-ī, uīc-tum//. \\  //ger-ō// “carry”, //ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/); \\  //ūr-ō// “burn”, //us-s-ī, us-tum//.
  
-<code> 
-e . with a lengthening perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.2. with //-uis-// or  only //-is-// //Perfectum//? 
  
-ag-ō “drive”ēg-ī, āc-tum. ed-ō “eat”ēd-ī, ē-sumleg-ō “gather”lēg-ī, lec-tum; em-ō “buy”ēm-ī, emp-tum. cōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō), cōge-recoēg-ī, coac-tum; relinqu-ō  “leaveabandon”relinque -rerelīqu-ī, relic-tumcollig-ō “gather togethercollect”collige-recollēg-ī, collec-tum.+    * //acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum// “sharpen”; the present //acu-ō//  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf//acū-tum//). As for the perfect //acu-ī//, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.   
 +    
 +    * //argu// “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/)//argu-ī, argū-tum//\\ //imbu// “give a taste of”//imbu-ī, imbū-tum//\\ //lu// “wash”//lu-ī, -lū-tum//; \\ //metu// “fear”, //metu-ī, metū-tum//; \\ //minu-ō// “lessen”, //minu-ī, minū-tum//; \\ //statu-ō// “establish”, //statu-ī, statū-tum//; \\ //su-ō// “sew”, //su-ī, sū-tum//; \\ //(ex)u-ō// “put off”//u-ī, ū-tum//; \\ //tribu-ō// “assign”//tribu-ī, tribū-tum//\\ //(con)gru//  “agree”//gru-ī─  //; \\ //-nu-ō// “nod”//-nu-ī, ─ //; \\ //spu-ō// “spit”, //spu-ī, ─ //\\ //sternu//  “sneeze”//sternu-ī─ //; \\ //ru-ō// “fall”//ru-ī, -tum (rui-tūr-us)//, /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is //rutum// and not //%%*%%rūtum// 
 +  
 +//Perfectum// in [i:-wis]: 
  
 +    * //arcess-ō// “summon”, //arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum//; \\ //capess-ō// “undertake”, //capessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //incess-ō// “attack”, //incessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //lacess-ō// “provoke”, //lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum//; \\ //pet-ō// “seek to obtain”, //petī-u-ī// or //peti-ī, petī-tum//; \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī// or //quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum//; \\ //rud-ō// “bray”, //rudī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //scisc-ō// “decree”, //scī-u-ī, scī-tum//; \\  //ter-ō// “rub”, //trī-u-ī, trī-tum//. \\ //sin-ō// “permit”, //sī-u-ī, si-tum//. 
 +  
 +//perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
-<;code>; +    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//\\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//\\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //\\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//; \\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//; \\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//; \\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //; \\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //; \\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//; \\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
-         C. Some irregularities +
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation: +
-<;/code>;+
  
 +“the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 1953, p. 208).
  
-ger-ō “bear, carry”,  gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ gerand /ges/);   quer-or “complain”, quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); ūr-ō “burn”, ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); hauri-ō “drain”, haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).+//perfectum// in [e:-wis]
  
 +    * //cern-ō// “decree”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“, //consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//; \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum//; \\ //stern-ō//, //strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō// “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//. \\    
  
-nōsc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum (= /nōskand //); cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō  “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”, crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum (= /kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāskand //);+    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//; and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /isor /…is/:
  
 +    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//); \\ //īc-ō// “hit”, //īc-ī, ic-tum//; \\ //-cend-ō// “kindle”, //-cend-ī,-censum//; \\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//; \\  //cūd-ō// “forge”, //-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand-ō// “chew”, //mand-ī, man-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//; \\ //prehend-ō// “seize”, //prehend-ī, prehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd-ō// “settle”, //sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd-ō// “whiz”, //strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck », //uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum//; \\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”; \\ //uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
  
-<code> 
-  • Verbs with a suppletive stem: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //solu-ō// “moose, pay”, //solu-ī, solū-tum//;  [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; \\ //uolu-ō// “turn”, //uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow », //consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// . 
  
-toll-ō “pick up”tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum. fer-ō “carry”fer-stul-ī, lātum.+    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//:  
 +  
 +    * //cad// “fall”//ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//; \\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting// “touch”//at-tinge-reat-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
  
  
-<code> 
-      • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of Perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.5. with a lengthening //perfectum//:
  
-coep-ī “I began”coep-is-coep-is-sememin-ī “I remember”memin-is-memin-is-seōd-ī “I hate”ōd-is-ōd-is-se.+    * //ag-ō// “drive”, //ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed-ō// “eat”//ēd-ī, ē-sum//\\ //leg-ō// “gather”, //lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em-ō// “buy”//ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum//\\ //relinqu-ō//  “leave, abandon”, //relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig-ō// “gather togethercollect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
  
  
-• Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme: aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m ; sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-m; fīd-ō “trust”, fīde-re, fī-s-us sum.+    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
  
 +    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
  
-<;code>; +    * //ger-ō// “bear, carry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/)\\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive)\\ //ūr-ō// “burn”, //ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/)\\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/)\\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-<;/code>;+
  
 +    * //nōsc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/); \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/); \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/); \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” , merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”, merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m  «mériter». 
  
 +    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
 +
 +    * //toll-ō// “pick up”, //tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”, //fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//; \\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
 +
 +
 +    * • Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 + 
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”, //soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +