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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2015/11/04 13:22]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin7 [2016/01/27 18:04] (Version actuelle)
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-    * **4. Tenses and personal moods**+    * **7.4. Tenses and personal moods**
  
  
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-    * **7.1. The imperfect** insert a morphological segment /ba:/ between the verbal stem and the personal ending, in the 1st conjugation, but a segment /e:ba:/ in the 2nd conjugation:+    * **7.4.1. The imperfect** insert a morphological segment /ba:/ between the verbal stem and the personal ending, in the 1st conjugation, but a segment /e:ba:/ in the 2nd conjugation:
  
  
Ligne 470: Ligne 470:
  
  
-    * **7.2. As for the future**, it inserts a segment /b ~ bi/ between the verbal item of the 1st conjugation and the personal ending, /b/ before a vowel and /bi/ before a consonant:+    * **7.4.2. As for the future**, it inserts a segment /b ~ bi/ between the verbal item of the 1st conjugation and the personal ending, /b/ before a vowel and /bi/ before a consonant:
  
  
Ligne 499: Ligne 499:
  
  
-    * **7.3.Subjunctive**+    * **7.4.3.Subjunctive**
  
  
Ligne 528: Ligne 528:
  
  
-    * **7.4. The imperfect subjunctive**+    * **7.4.4. The imperfect subjunctive**
  
  
Ligne 554: Ligne 554:
  
  
-    * **7.5. The imperative**, which in Latin exist only in the second persons, has, in the present, no formal segment and therefore corresponds to a  morpheme. But, in the future, it shows a morphological segment //-tō-//. Besides it uses specific allomorphs of Person 2 and Person 5: a  morpheme for Person 2 and a variant //-te// for Person 5:+    * **7.4.5. The imperative**, which in Latin exist only in the second persons, has, in the present, no formal segment and therefore corresponds to a  morpheme. But, in the future, it shows a morphological segment //-tō-//. Besides it uses specific allomorphs of Person 2 and Person 5: a  morpheme for Person 2 and a variant //-te// for Person 5:
  
  
Ligne 570: Ligne 570:
            
  
-The future imperative was frequent in early Latin: +The future imperative was frequent in early Latin: 
 + 
            
     * Plaut., //Merc.// 770: //Cras petito; dabitur. Nunc abi//,  "Ask tomorrow, it will be given. Now, away with you!"      * Plaut., //Merc.// 770: //Cras petito; dabitur. Nunc abi//,  "Ask tomorrow, it will be given. Now, away with you!" 
Ligne 585: Ligne 586:
  
  
-    * **7.6. The tenses of //Perfectum//**+    * **7.4.6. The tenses of //Perfectum//**
  
  
Ligne 604: Ligne 605:
  
  
-where -uer-unt is phonetic realization of /uis-unt/. One can ask oneself why it is not /ui-nt/? Because historically when the thematisation rule concerned the -nt 6th Person, it always led to -unt, and to i-t, when the -t 3th Person, like legi-t and leg-unt; therefore %%*%%/ui-nt/ was not possible, because it would suppose a thematisation in i before -nt.   But the 6th Person has another specific allomorph -ēre, which is combined with the short form of the Perfectum, since it begins with a vowel. It has no connection with [er-unt] the phonetic realization of /is-unt/, because of its long vowel. It is used rather rarely. The classical prose seems to avoid using it. Cicero says that if “he doesn’t criticize scripsere alii rem (“others wrote the thing”), he feels that scripserunt is more regular”. And the editor notices in a footnote: therefore we find in Caesar only forms in erunt. But Cicero adds that “he obeys the use which seeks what is attractive to the ears” . This comment seems to mean that the forms in -ēre was somewhat elegant and original. It is perhaps the reason why many perfects in -ēre are found in Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus.  Finally, there is another 6th Person form in ¬-ērunt, which is, as Ernout  says, “a compromise between -ěrunt and -ēre, maybe artificial, and created by dactylic poets in order avoid a Cretic foot as amāuěrūnt”. The pluperfect and the future perfect, which are morphologically the Perfectum imperfect and future, insert a tense morphological segment between the Perfectum morpheme and the Person morpheme. These inserted segments are the same as for the esse verb, i. e. -ā- for the Imperfect and ~ ifor the Future, or, if we accept James Foley assumption, -bā- for the Imperfect, and /b ~ bifor the Future: then /is-ba:and /is-b/ are phonetically realized [is-a:] and [is-] like /es-ba:-s/ and /es-bi-s/ are realized [es-a:-s] and [es-i-s] and, after the rhotacismus:+where //-uer-unt// is phonetic realization of /uis-unt/. One can ask oneself why it is not /ui-nt/? Because historically when the thematisation rule concerned the //-nt// 6th Person, it always led to //-unt//, and to //i-t//, when the //-t// 3th Person, like //legi-t// and //leg-unt//; therefore %%*%%/ui-nt/ was not possible, because it would suppose a thematisation in //i// before //-nt//.   
  
 +But the 6th Person has another specific allomorph //-ēre//, which is combined with the short form of the Perfectum, since it begins with a vowel. It has no connection with [er-unt] the phonetic realization of /is-unt/, because of its long vowel. It is used rather rarely. The classical prose seems to avoid using it. Cicero says that if "he doesn’t criticize //scripsere alii rem// (“others wrote the thing”), he feels that //scripserunt// is more regular”. And the editor notices in a footnote: therefore we find in Caesar only forms in //erunt//. But Cicero adds that “he obeys the use which seeks what is attractive to the ears”((Cf. Cic., //orator//157 : //Nec uero reprenderim : « scripsere alii rem » ; « scripserunt » esse uerius sentio ; sed consuetudini auribus indulgenti libenter obsequor//)) . This comment seems to mean that the forms in //-ēre// was somewhat elegant and original. It is perhaps the reason why many perfects in //-ēre// are found in Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus.  
  
-    - uer-ā-s, -uer-i-s or -ser-ā-s-ser-i-sR… -er-ā-sR …-er-i-s etc., like er-ā-s “you was” and er-i-s “you will be”.+Finallythere is another 6th Person form in //-ērunt//which isas Ernout  says,
  
  
-But in the 6th Person, the Future morphological unit replaces the segment  by an /i:/ subjunctive segment in order to avoid confusion with (u)er-unt of the perfect:+  
 +    * A. Ernout, //Morph. hist.//,1953, p. 216: “a compromise between //-ěrunt// and //-ēre//, maybe artificial, and created by dactylic poets in order avoid a Cretic foot as //amāuěrūnt//”. 
 +  
 +  
 +The pluperfect and the future perfectwhich are morphologically the //Perfectum// imperfect and future, insert a tense morphological segment between the //Perfectum// morpheme and the Person morpheme. These inserted segments are the same as for the esse verb, //i. e. -ā-// for the Imperfect and / ~ i/ for the Future, or, if we accept James Foley assumption, //-bā-// for the Imperfect, and /b ~ bi/ for the Futurethen /is-ba:/ and /is-b/ are phonetically realized [is-a:] and [is-] like /es-ba:-s/ and /es-bi-s/ are realized [es-a:-s] and [es-i-s] and, after the rhotacismus:
  
  
-<code> +    * //- uer-ā-s, -uer-i-s// or //-ser-ā-s, -ser-i-s//, //R… -er-ā-s, R …-er-i-s etc.//, like //er-ā-s// “you was” and //er-i-s// “you will be”. 
-amā-uer-i-nt, monu-uer-i-nt, lēg-er-i-nt, fe-fell-er-i-nt, etc. + 
-</code>+ 
 +But in the 6th Person, the Future morphological unit replaces the segment  by an /i:/ subjunctive segment in order to avoid a confusion with //(u)er-unt// of the perfect: 
 + 
 + 
 +    * //amā-uer-i-nt, monu-uer-i-nt, lēg-er-i-nt, fe-fell-er-i-nt, etc./
  
  
Ligne 621: Ligne 632:
  
  
-<code> + 
-leg-a-m “I shall read”, capi-a-m “I shall take”, audi-a-m “I shall hear” +    * //leg-a-m// “I shall read”, //capi-a-m// “I shall take”, //audi-a-m// “I shall hear” 
-</code>+
  
  
Ligne 629: Ligne 640:
  
  
-<code> +    * //leg-a-m// “I may read”, //capi-a-m// “I may take”, //audi-a-m// “I may hear”.
-leg-a-m “I may read”, capi-a-m “I may take”, audi-a-m “I may hear”. +
-</code>+
  
  
-The perfect subjunctive, which is really the Perfectum subjunctive, inserts a -ī- segment between the Perfectum morpheme and the Person morpheme: amā-uer-i-m, amā-uer-ī-s, amā-uer-i-t, amā-uer-ī-mus, amā-uer-ī-tis, amā-uer-i-nt which is the same as that of the verb es-se: 
  
 +The perfect subjunctive, which is really the //Perfectum// subjunctive, inserts a //-ī-// segment between the //Perfectum// morpheme and the Person morpheme: //amā-uer-i-m, amā-uer-ī-s, amā-uer-i-t, amā-uer-ī-mus, amā-uer-ī-tis, amā-uer-i-nt// which is the same as that of the verb //es-se//:
  
-<code> 
-s-i-m, s-ī-t, s-i-t, s-ī-mus, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //s-i-m, s-ī-t, s-i-t, s-ī-mus, etc.//
  
-And the pluperfect subjunctive inserts the /se:/ morphological combination which shows the same [se:] and [se] phonetic realizations as in the es-se verb, since it is after a sibilant consonant, as in the verb es-se: 
  
  
-<code> +And the pluperfect subjunctive inserts the /se:/ morphological combination which shows the same [se:] and [se] phonetic realizations as in the //es-se// verbsince it is after a sibilant consonantas in the verb //es-se//:
-amā-uis-se-m, amā-uis-sē-s, amā-uis-se-t, amā-uis-sē-mus, etc. +
-lēg-is-se-mlēg-is-sē-slēg-is-se-t, etc. fe-fell-is-se-m, fe-fell-is-sē-s, etc. +
- 5. The passive +
-</code>+
  
  
-While the active traditional category corresponds to neither a morphological unit, nor a morpheme, the passive category always corresponds to a morphological segment; but this passive segment together corresponds to another morphological unit. It is therefore a morphological combination. Thus amā-t-us su-m “I was loved” is opposed to am-or “I am loved” like amā-u-ī “I loved” is opposed to am-ō “I love”; hence there is in -t-us su¬- the Perfectum. But amā-tus su-m “I was loved” is opposed to amā-u-ī “I loved”; hence there is in -t-us su- the Passive. But there is already in -t-us su- the Perfectum. The only one conclusion is that -t-us su- is a morphological combination which together corresponds to the Passive unity and Perfectum unity. This combination is formed by three segments: firstlythe -t-(us) suffix called passive participle, which comes after the verbal stem, and is followed by a nominative casual ending, singular or plural according the concerned Person; then, the stem of the verb es-sewhich forms a syntagmatically independent word, and usually comes after the word which these two segments belong to, but may very well come before this word:+    * //amā-uis-se-mamā-uis--s, amā-uis-se-t, amā-uis--musetc.//
  
  
-<code> +    * //lēg-is-se-m, lēg-is--slēg-is-se-t, etc. fe-fell-is-se-mfe-fell-is-sē-s, etc.//
-amā-t-us su-m “I was loved”amā-t-ī su-mus “we were loved”es-t amā-t-us “he was loved”s-unt amā-t-ī “they were loved”, etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-The second word may be replaced by , particularly in the 3th person, amā-t-us having then the same meaning as amā-t-us est. It may be sometimes replaced also by the fu-ī perfect: amā-t-us fu-ī instead amā-t-us su-m; so also amā-t-us fu-er-a-m instead amāt-us er-a-m, etc. The first segment of the passive Perfectum morphological combination is a -s- when the verbal stem is ended by a dental like the verb scind-ō, scinde-re “split” or mitt-ō, mitte-re “send”: scis-s-us es-t “he was split”, phonetic realization of /skid-s-us es-t/, with neutralization of the quantity opposition before a voiceless consonant, and the sibilant variant of a dental before a sibilant consonantal; mis-s-us est “he was sent”, phonetic realization of /mit-s-us/, with the sibilant variant of a dental before a sibilant consonantal.  The first segment, -t-us as well -sus, quite often lead to a variant of the verbal stem which it is difficult to expect: 
  
 +    * **7.5. The passive**
 +
 +
 +
 +While the active traditional category corresponds to neither a morphological unit, nor a morpheme, the passive category always corresponds to a morphological segment; but this passive segment together corresponds to another morphological unit. It is therefore a morphological combination. Thus //amā-t-us su-m// “I was loved” is opposed to //am-or// “I am loved” like //amā-u-ī// “I loved” is opposed to //am-ō// “I love”; hence there is in //-t-us su-// the //Perfectum//. But //amā-tus su-m// “I was loved” is opposed to //amā-u-ī// “I loved”; hence there is in //-t-us su-// the Passive. But there is already in //-t-us su-// the //Perfectum//. The only one conclusion is that //-t-us su-// is a morphological combination which together corresponds to the Passive unity and //Perfectum// unity. This combination is formed by three segments: firstly, the //-t-(us)// suffix called passive participle, which comes after the verbal stem, and is followed by a nominative casual ending, singular or plural according the concerned Person; then, the stem of the verb //es-se//, which forms a syntagmatically independent word, and usually comes after the word which these two segments belong to, but may very well come before this word:
 +
 +
 +
 +    * //amā-t-us su-m// “I was loved”, //amā-t-ī su-mus// “we were loved”, //es-t amā-t-us// “he was loved”, //s-unt amā-t-ī// “they were loved”, //etc.//
 +
 +
 +
 +The second word may be replaced by , particularly in the 3th person, //amā-t-us// having then the same meaning as //amā-t-us est//. It may be sometimes replaced also by the //fu-ī// perfect: //amā-t-us fu-ī// instead //amā-t-us su-m//; so also //amā-t-us fu-er-a-m// instead //amāt-us er-a-m//, //etc.// The first segment of the passive //Perfectum// morphological combination is a //-s-// when the verbal stem is ended by a dental like the verb //scind-ō//, //scinde-re// “split” or //mitt-ō, mitte-re// “send”: //scis-s-us es-t// “he was split”, phonetic realization of /skid-s-us es-t/, with neutralization of the quantity opposition before a voiceless consonant, and the sibilant variant of a dental before a sibilant consonantal; //mis-s-us est// “he was sent”, phonetic realization of /mit-s-us/, with the sibilant variant of a dental before a sibilant consonantal.  The first segment, //-t-us// as well //-sus//, quite often lead to a variant of the verbal stem which it is difficult to expect:
 +
 +
 +
 +    * //domi-t-us// for //dom-ō, i-s, domŭ-ī// “subjugate”; //cubi-t-us// for //cub-ō, ā-s, cubŭ-ī// “lie down”; //moni-t-us// for //mone-ō, ē-s// “warn”; //scis-s-us// for //scind-ō, i-s, sci-cid-ī// or //scid-ī// “split”; //mulc-tus// or //mul-s-us// for //mulge-ō, ē-s, mulx-ī// or //mul-s-ī// “milk”; //etc.//
  
-<code> 
-domi-t-us for dom-ō, i-s, domŭ-ī “subjugate”; cubi-t-us for cub-ō, ā-s, cubŭ-ī “lie down”; moni-t-us for mone-ō, ē-s “warn”; scis-s-us for scind-ō, i-s, sci-cid-ī or scid-ī “split”; mulc-tus or mul-s-us for mulge-ō, ē-s, mulx-ī or mul-s-ī “milk”; etc. 
-</code> 
  
  
Ligne 671: Ligne 684:
  
  
-<code> +    * //emp-t-us// beside //em-ō, i-s, ēm-ī// “buy”, //scrip-t-us// beside //scrīb-ō, i-s, scrip-sī// “write”, //ac-t-us// beside //ag-ō, i-s, ēg-ī// “drive”; //fix-us// beside //fīg-ō, i-s, x-ī// “fix in”; //dīuī-s-us// beside //dīuid-ō, i-s, uī-s-ī// “separate in two”; //etc.//
-emp-t-us beside em-ō, i-s, ēm-ī “buy”, scrip-t-us beside scrīb-ō, i-s, scrip-sī “write”, ac-t-us beside ag-ō, i-s, ēg-ī “drive”; fix-us beside fīg-ō, i-s, x-ī “fix in”; dīuī-s-us beside dīuid-ō, i-s, uī-s-ī “separate in two”; etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-In the absence of the Perfectum morpheme, grammars traditionally speak about the passive infectum. Since the term of infectum doesn’t refer to any morphological characteristic, and since only the person endings are particular to the passive forms, these are not morphological combinations which together indicate the person and the passive. If many of them seem to be constituted with a person segment and a segment in r, as o + r for the first person, t + ur for the third person, and nt + ur for the 6th person, and ri + s for the second person, others show only the segment in r, as the first Person unmarked form  -r or the -re variant of the second person, or replace the s of the 4th person -mus with an   -r, and finally the -minī 5th person form is without segment r and cannot be analyzed. It therefore is better to consider these endings as any morphological combinations, which in the infectum represent the Passive + the Person, while in the Perfectum the morphological combination represented  the Passive + the Perfectum. So, in the first person, the Passive + first Person combination is -or only in all indicative presents and futures in -b-: am-or “I am loved”, mone-or “I am warned”, leg-or “I am read”, capi-or “I am taked”, audi-or “I am heard” 
  
 +In the absence of the //Perfectum// morpheme, grammars traditionally speak about the passive //infectum//. Since the term of //infectum// doesn’t refer to any morphological characteristic, and since only the person endings are particular to the passive forms, these are not morphological combinations which together indicate the person and the passive. If many of them seem to be constituted with a person segment and a segment in //r//, as //o + r// for the first person, //t + ur// for the third person, and //nt + ur// for the 6th person, and //ri + s// for the second person, others show only the segment in //r//, as the first Person unmarked form  //-r// or the //-re// variant of the second person, or replace the //s// of the 4th person //-mus// with an   //-r//, and finally the //-minī// 5th person form is without segment //r// and cannot be analyzed. It therefore is better to consider these endings as any morphological combinations, which in the infectum represent the Passive + the Person, while in the Perfectum the morphological combination represented  the Passive + the //Perfectum//. So, in the first person, the Passive + first Person combination is //-or// only in all indicative presents and futures in //-b-//: 
  
-<code> +    * //am-or// “I am loved”, //mone-or// “I am warned”//leg-or// “I am read”, //capi-or// “I am taked”, //audi-or// “I am heard”
-amā-b-or “I shall be loved’monē-b-or “I shall be warned”. +
-</code>+
  
  
-And everywhere else, it is only -r: amā-ba-r  “I was loved”, monē-ba-r “I was warned”, leg-ē-ba-r “I was read”, etc. leg-a-r “I shall be read”capia-“I shall be taken”, etc. am-e-r “I would be loved”, amā-re-m, etc. In the second person, it is either ¬-ris or -re, but only -re in the imperative: amā-ris (amā-re) “you are loved”, monē-ris (monē-re) “you are loved”, lege-ris (lege-re) “you are read”, etc. amā-re “be thou moved”, monē-re “be thou warned”, lege-re “be thou read”, audī-re “be thou heard”, etc amā-bā-ris ( amā-bā-re) “you were loved”, monē-be-ris (monē-be-re) “you will be warned”, leg-ēbā-ris (leg-ēbā-re), capi-ēbā-ris (capi-ēbā-re), etc. “Plautus has only nine certain examples of -ris. Terentius only ever uses re. And Cicero systematically distributes the two forms: in indicative present, he uses generally -ris in order to avoid confusion with imperative (and with active present infinitive); but in theindicative imperfect and future, and present and imperfect subjunctives, where the confusion is not possible any more, he seems to prefer -re” (according to Ernout, 19533, p. 122). In third person, it is always -tur, in fourth person, always -mur, in fifth person, always -minī:+    * //amā-b-or// “I shall be loved’//monē-b-or// “I shall be warned”.
  
  
-<code> 
-amā-tur “he is loved”, amā-mur “we are loved”, amā-minī “you are loved”, monē-tur “he is warned”, monē-mur “we are warned”, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +And everywhere else, it is only //-r//: 
  
-But in sixth personit is -nturwhich becomes untur after consonant or an i:+    * //amā-ba-r//  “I was loved”//monē-ba-r// “I was warned”//leg-ē-ba-r// “I was read”, //etc. leg-a-r// “I shall be read”, //capi- a-r// “I shall be taken”, //etc. am-e-r //“I would be loved”, //amā-re-m, etc.//  
 +    
  
 +In the second person, it is either //-ris// or //-re//, but only //-re// in the imperative: 
  
-<code> 
-amā-ntur “they are loved”, amā-ba- 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //amā-ris (amā-re)// “you are loved”, //monē-ris (monē-re)// “you are loved”, //lege-ris (lege-re)// “you are read”, //etc. amā-re// “be thou moved”, //monē-re// “be thou warned”, //lege-re// “be thou read”, //audī-re// “be thou heard”, //etc.//
 +  
 +   
 +    * //amā-bā-ris ( amā-bā-re)// “you were loved”, //monē-be-ris (monē-be-re)// “you will be warned”, //leg-ēbā-ris (leg-ēbā-re)//, //capi-ēbā-ris (capi-ēbā-re), etc.// 
 + 
  
-ntur “they were loved”; amā-b-untur” they will be loved”leg-untur “they are read”, capi-untur “they are taken”, etc. Apart from these two morphological particularities which combine Passive with Person in the infectum, or with Perfectum in the Perfectum, the Passive uses the same tense and mood units as the active. There are therefore two main infectum conjugations: the 1st conjugation the verbal stem of which is ended by a [- closed] vowel, which includes verbs in ē-re and verbs in ā-re, and the 2nd conjugation whose the verbal stem is ended by a [+ closed] vowel, which includes the verbs in e-re and verbs in -ī-re. And in each of the two conjugations, there is a sub-conjugation which loses its final vowel; for the 1st conjugation, it is the verbs like am-ō, ā-s; for the 2nd conjugation, it is the verbs like dic-ō, i-s. In the passive perfectum, there are, in front of the five active perfectum conjugations, only two kinds of conjugations: the conjugation which uses the morphological combination /t-(us) es/, and the conjugation which uses /s-(us) es/. The second segment of these morphological combinations is then the same as the verb es-se and is therefore combined with the same tense and mood morphological segments. Grammars, rightly distinguishing the second word of the passive perfectum from the es-se verb, call it an es-se auxiliary, which is a homonym of this verb.+according to Ernout,
  
  
-<code> +    * AErnout, //Morph. hist.//, 1953, p. 122: “Plautus has only nine certain examples of //-ris//. Terentius only ever uses //re//. And Cicero systematically distributes the two forms: in indicative present, he uses generally //-ris// in order to avoid confusion with imperative (and with active present infinitive)but in the indicative imperfect and future, and present and imperfect subjunctives, where the confusion is not possible any more, he seems to prefer //-re//.” 
- 6Deponent verbs +
-</code>;+
  
  
-Some verbs always have a passive form, and never an active one. Grammars call them deponent verbs, and define them as verbs “having the forms of the passive voice with an active or reflexive signification” (Allen & Greenough, 1888, p. 103). From the morphological point of view, they simply are passive verbswhatever their meaning. It is therefore not a surprise if like the actual passives they have the same infectum conjugations: uere-or “fear” like mone-orand imit-orimitā-rī “imitate” like am-oramā-rīfor the 1st infectum conjugation experior, experī-rī “attempt” like audi-or, audī-rī; pati-or, pate-ris “undergo” like capi-or, cape-ris, and ūt-or, ūte-ris “use” like leg-or, lege-ris, for the 2nd infectum conjugation. and the same -t(us) es- and -s(us) esperfectum conjugations:+In third personit is always //-tur//in fourth personalways //-mur//in fifth personalways //-minī//:
  
  
-<code> 
-imitā-t-us su-m, ueri-t-us su-m, exper-t-us su-m 
-pas-s-us su-m “I underwent”, ū-s-us su-m “I used”. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //amā-tur// “he is loved”, //amā-mur// “we are loved”, //amā-minī// “you are loved”, 
 + 
 +    * //monē-tur// “he is warned”, //monē-mur// “we are warned”, etc.
  
-Some verbs have this passive forms only in the perfectum, and not in the infectum. For example, the verbs aude-ō “dare”, gaude-ō “rejoice”, sole-ō “be wont”, and  fīd-ō, fide-re “trust”, which are conjugated, the first three, like verbs of the 1st infectum conjugation, and, the last, like a verb of the 2a infectum conjugation, have as perfect respectively au-s-us sum “I dared”, gāuī-s-us su-m “I rejoiced”, fī-s-us su-m “I trusted”, and soli-t-us su-m “I was wont”. They are therefore called semi-deponent verbs. 
  
 +But in sixth person, it is //-ntur//, which becomes untur after a consonant or an //i//:
 +
 +
 +    * //amā-ntur// “they are loved”, //amā-ba-ntur// “they were loved”; //amā-b-untur// ” they will be loved”, //leg-untur// “they are read”, //capi-untur// “they are taken”, //etc.// 
 + 
 +
 +Apart from these two morphological particularities which combine Passive with Person in the //infectum//, or with //Perfectum// in the //Perfectum//, the Passive uses the same tense and mood units as the active. There are therefore two main //infectum// conjugations: the 1st conjugation the verbal stem of which is ended by a [- closed] vowel, which includes verbs in //ē-re// and verbs in //ā-re//, and the 2nd conjugation whose the verbal stem is ended by a [+ closed] vowel, which includes the verbs in //e-re// and verbs in //-ī-re//. And in each of the two conjugations, there is a sub-conjugation which loses its final vowel; for the 1st conjugation, it is the verbs like //am-ō, ā-s//; for the 2nd conjugation, it is the verbs like //dic-ō, i-s//. 
 +
 +
 +In the passive //perfectum//, there are, in front of the five active //perfectum// conjugations, only two kinds of conjugations: the conjugation which uses the morphological combination /t-(us) es/, and the conjugation which uses /s-(us) es/. The second segment of these morphological combinations is then the same as the verb //es-se// and is therefore combined with the same tense and mood morphological segments. Grammars, rightly distinguishing the second word of the passive perfectum from the //es-se// verb, call it an //es-se// auxiliary, which is a homonym of this verb.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **7.6. Deponent verbs**
 +
 +
 +
 +Some verbs always have a passive form, and never an active one. Grammars call them deponent verbs, and define them as verbs 
 +
 +    * Allen & Greenough, 1888, p. 103, //“having the forms of the passive voice with an active or reflexive signification”//.
 +
 +
 +From the morphological point of view, they simply are passive verbs, whatever their meaning. It is therefore not a surprise if like the actual passives they have the same //infectum// conjugations: 
 +
 +    * //uere-or// “fear” like //mone-or//, and //imit-or, imitā-rī// “imitate” like //am-or, amā-rī//, for the 1st infectum conjugation 
 +    
 +    * //experior, experī-rī// “attempt” like //audi-or, audī-rī//; //pati-or, pate-ris// “undergo” like //capi-or, cape-ris//, and //ūt-or, ūte-ris// “use” like //leg-or, lege-ris//, for the 2nd infectum conjugation. 
 +
 +
 +and the same -t(us) es- and -s(us) es- //perfectum// conjugations:
 +
 +
 +    * //imitā-t-us su-m, ueri-t-us su-m, exper-t-us su-m//
 +
 +    * //pas-s-us su-m// “I underwent”, //ū-s-us su-m// “I used”.
 +
 +
 +
 +Some verbs have this passive forms only in the //perfectum//, and not in the //infectum//. For example, the verbs //aude-ō// “dare”, //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //sole-ō// “be wont”, and  //fīd-ō, fide-re// “trust”, which are conjugated, the first three, like verbs of the 1st //infectum// conjugation, and, the last, like a verb of the 2a //infectum// conjugation, have as perfect respectively //au-s-us sum// “I dared”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// “I rejoiced”, //fī-s-us su-m// “I trusted”, and //soli-t-us su-m// “I was wont”. They are therefore called semi-deponent verbs.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **7.7. Noun and adjective forms**
  
-<code> 
- 7. Noun and adjective forms 
-</code> 
  
  
Ligne 728: Ligne 775:
  
  
-<code> + 
- a. The infinitive, which properly is an abstract noun denoting the action or state expressed by the verb, differs however from other abstract nouns, because 1) it seems to admit some tenses, 2) it is modified by adverbs, and not by adjectives as  nouns are, 3) it is constructed with verb complements, and not with noun complements. But, even though it cannot be declined, it functions as a subject and a verb complement, i. e. as a nominative and an accusative. +    * **7.7.1. The infinitive**, which properly is an abstract noun denoting the action or state expressed by the verb, differs however from other abstract nouns, because 1) it seems to admit some tenses, 2) it is modified by adverbs, and not by adjectives as  nouns are, 3) it is constructed with verb complements, and not with noun complements. But, even though it cannot be declined, it functions as a subject and a verb complement, //i. e.// as a nominative and an accusative. 
-</code>+ 
 + 
 + 
 +It corresponds to a morphological segment /se/, which could be, if its final //e// is original, an old instrumental, or if its final //e// goes back to an //i//, an old locative. In the infectum, it is phonetically realized [re], because of the rhotacismus:
  
  
-It corresponds to a morphological segment /se/, which could be, if its final e is original, an old instrumental, or if its final e goes back to an i, an old locative. In the infectum, it is phonetically realized [re], because of the rhotacismus:+    * //monē-re// and //amā-re// for the 1st conjugation
  
  
-<code> +    * //audī-re, cape-re// and //dīce-re// for the 2nd conjugation;
-monē-re and amā-re for the 1st conjugation +
-audī-re, cape-re and dīce-re for the 2nd conjugation+
-</code>;+
  
  
Ligne 745: Ligne 792:
  
  
-<code> +    * //amā-uis-se, monŭis-se, lēg-is-se, fe-fell-is-se//
-amā-uis-se, monŭis-se, lēg-is-se, fe-fell-is-se +
-</code>+
  
  
-and in the infectum of the es-se verb and its compounds:+and in the infectum of the //es-se// verb and its compounds:
  
  
-<code> +    * //ad-es-se, ab-es-se, po-s-se// phonetic realization of /pot-s-se/.
-ad-es-se, ab-es-se, po-s-se phonetic realization of /pot-s-se/. +
-</code>+
  
  
-Since the Infinitive morphological unit replaces the Person morphological unit, it is not surprising to see that the Infinitive is combined with the passive in the infectum, the morphological combination of Infinitive and Passive -rī alternating with -ī in the verbs in ĭ of the 2nd infectum conjugation:+Since the Infinitive morphological unit replaces the Person morphological unit, it is not surprising to see that the Infinitive is combined with the passive in the //infectum//, the morphological combination of Infinitive and Passive //-rī// alternating with //// in the verbs in //ĭ// of the 2nd //infectum// conjugation:
  
  
-<code> +    * //amā-rī// “be loved”, //monē-rī// “be warned”, //audī-rī// “be heard”
-amā-rī “be loved”, monē-rī “be warned”, audī-rī “be heard” +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //leg-ī// from //leg-ō, i-s, e-re//; //cap-ī// from //capi-ō, i-s, e-re//  (we shall notice the likeness between //cap-ī// = /kapi-i:/ and //leg-ī// = /leg-i:/). 
 + 
 +In the passive //perfectum//, the //-se// infinitive segment is added to the passive and //perfectum// morphological combination //-t(us) es-// which agrees in gender and number with the accusative subject:
  
-leg-ī from leg-ō, i-s, e-re; cap-ī from capi-ō, i-s, e-re  (we shall notice the likeness between cap-ī = /kapi-i:and leg-ī = /leg-i:/). In the passive perfectumthe -se infinitive segment is added to the passive and perfectum morphological combination -t(us) es- which agrees in gender and number with the accusative subject:+    * //amā-t-um esse// “(him) to have been loved”, //amā-tam es-se// “(herto have been loved”//amā-t-ōs es-se// “(them) to have been loved”
  
  
-<code> +    * //moni-t-um esse //“(him) to have been warned”, //lec-t-um es-se// “(him) to have been read”, //audī-t-ōs es-se// “(them) to have been heard”
-amā-t-um esse “(him) to have been loved”, amā-tam es-se “(her) to have been loved”, amā-t-ōs es-se “(them) to have been loved” +
-moni-t-um esse “(him) to have been warned”, lec-t-um es-se “(him) to have been read”, audī-t-ōs es-se “(them) to have been heard” +
-fal-s-um esse “(him) to have been deceived”. +
- 8. Gerund and supine +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //fal-s-um esse// “(him) to have been deceived”.
  
-The gerund is a verbal noun, which like the infinitive expresses the action or state signified by the verb in the form of a verbal noun. It corresponds in meaning to the English verbal noun in -ing. It adds to the stem the morphological segment -nd- in the 1st infectum conjugation or -end- in the 2nd conjugation: 
  
 +    * **7.8. Gerund and supine**
  
-<code> 
-ama-nd-ī “lov-ing-Gen., mone-nd-ī “warn-ing-Gen.” 
-</code> 
  
  
-leg-end-ī “read-ing-Gen.”capi-end-ī “taking-Gen.”, audi-end-ī “hear-ing-Gen.” It exists only in oblique cases, and completes, as it were, the declension of the active present infinitive, which replaces it as the nominative: scribe-re es-t util-e “writing (to write) is useful”, in front of ars scribendi “the art of writing”. That corresponds to the following table:+The gerund is a verbal nounwhich like the infinitive expresses the action or state signified by the verb in the form of a verbal nounIt corresponds in meaning to the English verbal noun in //-ing//. It adds to the stem the morphological segment //-nd-// in the 1st //infectum// conjugation or //-end-// in the 2nd conjugation:
  
 +    * //ama-nd-ī// “lov-ing-Gen., //mone-nd-ī// “warn-ing-Gen.”
  
-. infinitive gerund supine NOM. amā-re ACC. amā-re (ad) ama-nd-um amā-t-um GEN. ama-nd-ī  DAT. ama-nd-ō amā-t-ū (-uīABL. ama-nd-ō amā-t-ū+    * //leg-end-ī// “read-ing-Gen.”, //capi-end-ī// “taking-Gen.”, //audi-end// “hear-ing-Gen.”  
 +   
 +It exists only in oblique cases, and completes, as it were, the declension of the active present infinitive, which replaces it as the nominative: //scribe-re es-t util-e// “writing (to writeis useful”, in front of //ars scribendi// “the art of writing”That corresponds to the following table:
  
  
-The supine is also a verbal noun with the segment -tor -s-, which is declined according to the fourth declension. It is found only in the accusative ending t-um or s-um, and the dative or ablative ending -t-ū or -s:+^ ^infinitive ^gerund ^supine 
 +^NOM. |//amā-re// | | | 
 +^ACC. | //amā-re// |//(ad) ama-nd-um// |//amā-t-um// | 
 +^GEN. | |//ama-nd-ī// | | 
 +^DAT. | |//ama-nd-ō// | |//amā-t-ū (-uī)// |   
 +^ABL. | |//ama-nd-ō// |//amā-t// |
  
  
-<code> +The supine is also a verbal noun with the segment //-t-// or //-s-//, which is declined according to the fourth declension. It is found only in the accusative ending //t-um// or //s-um//, and the dative or ablative ending //-t-ū// or //-s-ū//:
-ue-:-n-i-t spectā-t-um “he came to see”; e-ō lū-s-um “I go to play” +
- mirā-bil-e dic-t-ū “wonderful to tell”, mirā-bil-e uī-s-ū “wonderful to  see”. +
-</code>+
  
  
-Plautus distinguishes even the Dative in -uī istaec lepida sunt memoratui (Bacch. 62) “these things are agreeable to say” from the Ablative in -ū : opsonatu redeo (Men. 288) “I got back from shopping”.+    * //ue-:-n-i-t spectā-t-um// “he came to see”; //e-ō lū-s-um// “I go to play”
  
 +    * //mirā-bil-e dic-t-ū// “wonderful to tell”, //mirā-bil-e uī-s-ū// “wonderful to see”.
 +
 +
 +
 +Plautus distinguishes even the Dative in //-uī// : 
 +
 +    * Plaut.,//Bacch.// 62: //istaec lepida sunt memoratui//  “these things are agreeable to say” 
 +
 +from the Ablative in //-ū// : 
 +
 +    * Men. 288: //opsonatu redeo//  “I got back from shopping”.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **7.9. Participles**
  
-<code> 
- 9. Participles 
-</code> 
  
  
Ligne 811: Ligne 865:
  
  
-<code> +    * **Present participle**
-   Present participle +
-</code>+
  
  
-For the active or deponent verbs, the so-called present participle, which has the same meaning as the English participle in -ing, adds to verbal stem of the 1st infectum conjugation a morphological segment -nt- or -ent- in the 2nd conjugation: ama-n-s (phonetic realization of /ama:-nt-s/, because of the sibilant alternation of /t/ before a sibilant, and the simplification of the final geminates), nt-is, nt-ium “loving”, from amā-re; imita-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium “imitating” from imitā-rī; mone-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium “warning” from monē-re; uere-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium “fearing” from uerē-rī  leg-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “reading” from lege-re; loqu-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “speaking” from loqu-ī; capi-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “taking”, from cape-re; pati-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “undergoing” from pat-ī; audi-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “hearing” from audī-re; parti-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium “dividing” from partī-rī. 
  
 +For the active or deponent verbs, the so-called present participle, which has the same meaning as the English participle in -ing, adds to verbal stem of the 1st //infectum// conjugation a morphological segment //-nt-// or //-ent-// in the 2nd conjugation: //ama-n-s// (phonetic realization of /ama:-nt-s/, because of the sibilant alternation of /t/ before a sibilant, and the simplification of the final geminates), //nt-is, nt-ium// “loving”, from //amā-re//; //imita-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “imitating” from //imitā-rī//; //mone-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “warning” from //monē-re//; //uere-n-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “fearing” from //uerē-rī  leg-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “reading” from //lege-re//; //loqu-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “speaking” from //loqu-ī//; //capi-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “taking”, from //cape-re//; //pati-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “undergoing” from //pat-ī//; //audi-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “hearing” from //audī-re//; //parti-en-s, nt-is, nt-ium// “dividing” from //partī-rī//.
  
-<code> 
- Past passive participle 
-</code> 
  
  
-This participle in -nt- doesn’t exist in the passive voice, which has only a participle in t-us or s-us traditionally called the perfect passive participle or “past passive participle”.+    * **Past passive participle**
  
  
-<code> 
-amā-t-us “moved”, mis-s-us “sent”, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +This participle in //-nt-// doesn’t exist in the passive voice, which has only a participle in //t-us// or //s-us// traditionally called the perfect passive participle or “past passive participle”.
  
-Grammars  “usually teach that in Latin there is, in active voice, a present participle (amans “loving”), but no past participle (cf. fr. ayant aimé “having loved”), in the passive voice, a past participle (amā-t-us “fr. ayant été aimé, Engl. having been loved”), but no present participle (cf. fr. étant aimé “being loved”), but in the deponent voicea present participle (imitans “imitating”) and a past participle (imitā-t-us “fr. ayant imité , engl. having imitated”). That is true, if we judge it from the most frequent translations into French of the different Latin participles. But that is not true in the Latin system. Because what we traditionally call the Latin present participle and the perfect participle has really no temporal or aspectual value. There is, strictly speaking, neither present participle nor past participle in Latin. There is only a simple participle, which uses the -nt- morphological segment in the so-called active voice, and in the passive, the -t(us) or -s(us) morphological segments. … As to the deponents which use the two segments, these do not really have an opposite contrast meaning, contrary to what should be expected.” (according to Touratier, 1994p161)+    * //amā-t-us “moved”mis-s-us// “sent”//etc.//
  
  
-<code> 
- Future participle? 
-</code> 
  
 +Grammars  “usually teach that in Latin there is, in active voice, a present participle (//amans// “loving”), but no past participle (cf. fr. ayant aimé “having loved”), in the passive voice, a past participle (//amā-t-us// “fr. ayant été aimé, Engl. having been loved”), but no present participle (cf. fr. étant aimé “being loved”), but in the deponent voice, a present participle (//imitans// “imitating”) and a past participle (//imitā-t-us// “fr. ayant imité , engl. having imitated”). That is true, if we judge it from the most frequent translations into French of the different Latin participles. But that is not true in the Latin system. Because what we traditionally call the Latin present participle and the perfect participle has really no temporal or aspectual value. There is, strictly speaking, neither present participle nor past participle in Latin. There is only a simple participle, which uses the //-nt-// morphological segment in the so-called active voice, and in the passive, the //-t(us)// or //-s(us)// morphological segments. … As to the deponents which use the two segments, these do not really have an opposite contrast meaning, contrary to what should be expected.” (according to Touratier, 1994, p. 161)
  
-Grammars, which wrongly believed that a Latin participle could be present and past, identified the verb derived adjectives in -tūr-us or -sūr-us as any future participles. But if there is no present nor past participle, why would there be a future participle? It is rather an adjective which expresses what is likely or intended or about to happen, and differs from the future tense by this meaning. And until the end of the Republican period, this so-called future participle was only used as predicative adjective with the es-se verb.  eorum apud quos aliquid aget aut erit acturus mentis sensusque degustet (Cic., de orat. 1,223) "he ought to examine the thoughts and feelings of those before  whom he will plead or intend to plead any cause". It is only from Vergil and Livy that the adjective in -tūr-us is usual without the verb sum¸ and accorded with a subject or a complement: Periturae addere Troiae Teque tuosque iuuat (Verg., Aen. 2,660) “it delights you to add yourself and your family to Troy destined for the ruin”. 
  
  
-<code> +    * **Future participle?**
-  Future infinitive? +
-</code>+
  
  
-If the so-called future participle is nothing but a verbal adjective, is it possible to speak, as grammars do, about a future infinitive? Grammars, which think that the perfectum infinitive is a past infinitive, and the infectum infinitive is a present infinitive, do not hesitate to speak about a future infinitive.  This future infinitive is said to have been formed, in the active voice, by the future participle in the accusative combined with the infinitive of the verb es-se: 
  
 +Grammars, which wrongly believed that a Latin participle could be present and past, identified the verb derived adjectives in //-tūr-us// or //-sūr-us// as any future participles. But if there is no present nor past participle, why would there be a future participle? It is rather an adjective which expresses what is likely or intended or about to happen, and differs from the future tense by this meaning. And until the end of the Republican period, this so-called future participle was only used as predicative adjective with the //es-se// verb.  
  
-&lt;code> +    * Cic., //de orat.// 1,223: //eorum apud quos aliquid aget aut erit acturus mentis sensusque degustet//  &quot;he ought to examine the thoughts and feelings of those before  whom he will plead or intend to plead any cause&quot;.  
-amā-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se “to be about to love”,  moni-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se “to be about to warn”, lec-t-ūr-um (-am, -um) es-se “to be about to read”, etc. + 
-&lt;/code>;+
  
 + It is only from Vergil and Livy that the adjective in //-tūr-us//, is usual without the verb sum¸ and accorded with a subject or a complement: 
  
-In the passiveit is said to have been formed by the supine accusative combined with the impersonal infinitive of the ī-re verbamā-t-um ī-rī  “to be about to be loved”moni-t-um ī-rī  “to be about to be warned”, lec-t-um ī-rī “to be about to be read”, etc But, in the deponent verbs, the future infinitive is like in an active verb:+    * Verg.//Aen.// 2,660//Periturae addere Troiae Teque tuosque iuuat// “it delights you to add yourself and your family to Troy destined for the ruin”.
  
  
-<code> 
-Imitā-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se “to be about to imitate”. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **Future infinitive?**
  
-In actual fact, if there is no future participle, there is no future infinitive either. And if there is no future infinitive, we understand that the so-called future infinitive can be constructed, like every predicate adjective, with the perfectum of the esse verb, as in 
  
 +If the so-called future participle is nothing but a verbal adjective, is it possible to speak, as grammars do, about a future infinitive? Grammars, which think that the //perfectum// infinitive is a past infinitive, and the //infectum// infinitive is a present infinitive, do not hesitate to speak about a future infinitive.  This future infinitive is said to have been formed, in the active voice, by the future participle in the accusative combined with the infinitive of the verb //es-se//:
  
-<code> 
-Dixit … P. Clodium illo die in Albano mansurum fuisse (Cic., Mil. 46) "He said that P. Clodius had intended to remain that day at his Alban villa”. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //amā-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se// “to be about to love”,  //moni-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se// “to be about to warn”, //lec-t-ūr-um (-am, -um) es-se// “to be about to read”, etc.
  
-As for the so-called passive future infinitive, it is better to consider it as “a periphrastic locution consisting of a supine and the infinitive of the ī-re verb which is put into the impersonal passive” (Ernout & Thomas, p. 325). And the noun in the accusative that appears in this construction “is not the subject of the infinitive, but rather the complement of the supine” (Ernout & Thomas, p. 325), which explains why the verb is invariable. So, in rumor uenit datum iri gladiatores (Ter., Hec. 39-40) “a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited” (Henry Thomas Riley, in: New York: Harper and Brothers, 1874) If the translation is semantically exact, it does not allow understanding the syntactical construction, which must be the same as in fuere ciues qui rem publicam perditum irent (Sall., Cat. 30) « there were citizens who went about to ruin the Republic ». Here the supine in the accusative is used after a verb of movement to express a purpose and it takes an object in the accusative; hence, the following translation: “a rumor spread that people were about to exhibit gladiators” or perhaps“that some one goes (it is gone) about  to exhibit gladiators”. 
  
 +In the passive, it is said to have been formed by the supine accusative combined with the impersonal infinitive of the //ī-re// verb: //amā-t-um ī-rī//  “to be about to be loved”, //moni-t-um ī-rī//  “to be about to be warned”, //lec-t-um ī-rī// “to be about to be read”, //etc.//  But, in the deponent verbs, the future infinitive is like in an active verb:
  
-<code> 
- Gerundive 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //Imitā-tūr-um (-am, -um) es-se// “to be about to imitate”.
  
-There is another verbal adjective; it is traditionally called the gerundive. It shows a morphological segment -nd- in the 1st infectum conjugation, and -end- in the 2nd conjugation, which is the homonym of the Gerund, since it means firstly passive and secondly obligation, necessity or propriety, when it is used as an adjective with the es-se verb : audiend-us es-t  “he must be heard”,  capi-end-us est “he is to be taken”, leg-end-us es-t “he must to be read” ama-nd-us e¬s-t “he is to be loved”, monendus es-t “ he is to be advised”. As for the so-called exchanges between the Gerund of cupidus uidendi urbem and the gerundive of cupidus urbis uidendae, they really are two different constructions which denote the same extralinguistic reality, but do not show it in the same way: in the first case, it is a man who loves the action of visiting Rome, in the second, it is a man who loves Rome which he must visit. It is therefore different. 
  
 +In actual fact, if there is no future participle, there is no future infinitive either. And if there is no future infinitive, we understand that the so-called future infinitive can be constructed, like every predicate adjective, with the //perfectum// of the //esse// verb, as in
  
-<code> 
-  
- 10. Irregular verbs 
-</code> 
  
 +    * Cic., //Mil.// 46: //Dixit … P. Clodium illo die in Albano mansurum fuisse//, "He said that P. Clodius had intended to remain that day at his Alban villa”.
  
-The grammars call regular verbs the verbs of 1) the 1a conjugation that, like am-ō, ā-s, amā-u-ī, amā-t-um, ending in ā-, have /uis ~ u/ as Perfectum segment, and t-um as supine 2) the 1st conjugation that, like dele-ō, ē-s, delē-u-ī, delē-t-um, ending in ē-, have /uis ~ u/ as Perfectum segment, and t-um as supine; but, since delē-re is the only one that keeps its final ē-, the common type of the 1st conjugation is, like mone-ō, ē-s, monŭ-ī, moni-t-um, has a variant in ŭ before the /uis ~ u/ Perfectum segment (the monŭ-ī traditional spelling corresponding to the [monu-w-ī] pronunciation) and in ĭ before the -t-um supine segment. 
  
 +As for the so-called passive future infinitive, it is better to consider it as “a periphrastic locution consisting of a supine and the infinitive of the ī-re verb which is put into the impersonal passive” (Ernout & Thomas, p. 325). And the noun in the accusative that appears in this construction “is not the subject of the infinitive, but rather the complement of the supine” (Ernout & Thomas, p. 325), which explains why the verb is invariable. So, 
  
-<code> +    * Ter., //Hec.// 39-40)//: in rumor uenit datum iri gladiatores// ,“a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited” (Henry Thomas Rileyin: New York: Harper and Brothers1874) If the translation is semantically exactit does not allow understanding the syntactical constructionwhich must be the same as in
- 3) the 2a conjugation that, like teg-ō, i-s, tege-re, tex-ī, tec-t-um “cover”, or dīc-ō, i-s, dīce-re, dix-ī, dic-t-um “say”has /sis ~ sas Perfectum segment and the variant without a final vowel before the -t-um supine segment 4the 2nd conjugation in ī that, like audi-ōī-saudī-reaudī-u-ī, audī-t-um, has /uis ~ u/ as Perfectum segment, and t-um as the supine. +
-</code>+
  
 +    *  Sall., //Cat.// 30: //fuere ciues qui rem publicam perditum irent// , « there were citizens who went about to ruin the Republic ». 
 +    
 +Here the supine in the accusative is used after a verb of movement to express a purpose and it takes an object in the accusative; hence, the following translation: 
  
-All the other verbs are more or less irregular. We can distinguish two kinds of irregularity. There is the irregularity of the verbs that show some allomorphs in the context of some tense series, e.g. in the perfectum or in the passive. When the irregularities of their principal parts are known, these verbs are conjugated according to the regular conjugation pattern. There are some much more irregular verbs the conjugation itself of which is irregular.+    * “a rumor spread that people were about to exhibit gladiators” or perhaps“that some one goes (it is gone) about  to exhibit gladiators”.
  
  
-<code> 
-A. The verb es-se and its compounds 
-1. The verb es-se: The first particularity is not an irregularity: the apparent alternation /es- ~ er-/ is actually a phonological variation called the rhotacismus. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **Gerundive**
  
-If the signifier of this verb is /es-/, it will be realized [es] before a consonant; hence es-t “he is”, es-tis “you are”, and the imperfect subjunctive es-sem, es-sē-s, es-se-t; but before a vowel, it will be realized [er]; hence, in future er-ō, er-i-s, er-i-t, … er-unt, and in imperfect er-a-m, er-ā-s, er-a-t, er-ā-mus, etc.  The first and serious irregularity of the verb es-se is the fact that it has no allomorph in i before the consonantal initial of the person segments:  es-t “he is” in front of legi-t “he reads”, e-s “you are”, realization of /es-s/ in front of legi-s “you read”, and es-tis “you are” in front of legi-tis “you read”. But before the nasal initial of the same segments, there is an u thematization: 
  
  
-<;code> +There is another verbal adjectiveit is traditionally called the gerundive. It shows a morphological segment //-nd-// in the 1st //infectum// conjugationand //-end-// in the 2nd conjugationwhich is the homonym of the Gerund, since it means firstly passive and secondly obligation, necessity or propriety, when it is used as an adjective with the //es-se// verb :
-su-m “I am”, su-mus “we are”s-unt “they are”, +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //audiend-us es-t//  “he must be heard”,  //capi-end-us est// “he is to be taken”, //leg-end-us es-t// “he must to be read” //ama-nd-us e¬s-t// “he is to be loved”, //monendus es-t// “he is to be advised”. 
 +
 +As for the so-called exchanges between the Gerund of //cupidus uidendi urbem// and the gerundive of //cupidus urbis uidendae//, they really are two different constructions which denote the same extralinguistic reality, but do not show it in the same way: in the first case, it is a man who loves the action of visiting Rome, in the second, it is a man who loves Rome which he must visit. It is therefore different.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **7.10. Irregular verbs**
 +  
 +
 +
 +The grammars call regular verbs the verbs of 
 +
 +
 +1) the 1a conjugation that, like //am-ō, ā-s, amā-u-ī, amā-t-um//, ending in //ā-//, have /uis ~ u/ as //Perfectum// segment, and t-um as supine
 +
 +
 +2) the 1st conjugation that, like //dele-ō, ē-s, delē-u-ī, delē-t-um//, ending in ē-, have /uis ~ u/ as //Perfectum// segment, and //t-um// as supine; but, since //delē-re// is the only one that keeps its final //ē-//, the common type of the 1st conjugation is, like //mone-ō, ē-s, monŭ-ī, moni-t-um//, has a variant in //ŭ// before the /uis ~ u/ //Perfectum// segment (the //monŭ-ī// traditional spelling corresponding to the [monu-w-ī] pronunciation) and in //ĭ// before the //-t-um// supine segment.
 +
 +
 +3) the 2a conjugation that, like //teg-ō, i-s, tege-re, tex-ī, tec-t-um// “cover”, or //dīc-ō, i-s, dīce-re, dix-ī, dic-t-um// “say”, has /sis ~ s/ as Perfectum segment and the variant without a final vowel before the //-t-um// supine segment
 +
 +4) the 2nd conjugation in //ī// that, like //audi-ō, ī-s, audī-re, audī-u-ī, audī-t-um//, has /uis ~ u/ as //Perfectum// segment, and //t-um// as the supine.
 +
 +
 +
 +All the other verbs are more or less irregular. We can distinguish two kinds of irregularity. There is the irregularity of the verbs that show some allomorphs in the context of some tense series, e.g. in the //perfectum// or in the passive. When the irregularities of their principal parts are known, these verbs are conjugated according to the regular conjugation pattern. There are some much more irregular verbs the conjugation itself of which is irregular.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **7.10.1. The verb es-se and its compounds**
 +
 +
 +    * **7.10.1.1. The verb //es-se//**: The first particularity is not an irregularity: the apparent alternation /es- ~ er-/ is actually a phonological variation called the rhotacismus.
 +
 +
 +
 +If the signifier of this verb is /es-/, it will be realized [es] before a consonant; hence //es-t// “he is”, //es-tis// “you are”, and the imperfect subjunctive //es-sem, es-sē-s, es-se-t//; but before a vowel, it will be realized [er]; hence, in future //er-ō, er-i-s, er-i-t, … er-unt//, and in imperfect //er-a-m, er-ā-s, er-a-t, er-ā-mus//, //etc.//  The first and serious irregularity of the verb //es-se// is the fact that it has no allomorph in //i// before the consonantal initial of the person segments:  //es-t// “he is” in front of //legi-t// “he reads”, //e-s// “you are”, realization of /es-s/ in front of //legi-s// “you read”, and //es-tis// “you are” in front of //legi-tis// “you read”. But before the nasal initial of the same segments, there is an //u// thematization:
 +
 +
 +    * //su-m// “I am”, //su-mus// “we are”, //s-unt// “they are”,
  
 and second irregularity, the verb shows an /s/ variant instead of the /es/ morph of the other persons, and so in the subjunctive: and second irregularity, the verb shows an /s/ variant instead of the /es/ morph of the other persons, and so in the subjunctive:
  
 +    * //s-i-m, s-ī-s, s-i-t, s-ī-mus, etc.//
  
-<code> 
-s-i-m, s-ī-s, s-i-t, s-ī-mus, etc. 
- James Foley suggested the following explanation: if we assume that the verb es-se has /s/ as no-marked morph, then /es/ is an allomorph with an e prosthesis, according to the rule:  
-# Consonant + Consonant   →  # e Consonant + Consonant; 
-</code> 
  
 +James Foley suggested the following explanation: if we assume that the verb //es-se// has /s/ as no-marked morph, then /es/ is an allomorph with an //e// prosthesis, according to the rule:
 +
 + 
 +    * # Consonant + Consonant   →  # e Consonant + Consonant;
  
 hence hence
  
- +    * /s-t/ → est, /s-tis/ → //es-tis//
-<code> +
-/s-t/ → est, /s-tis/ → es-tis +
-</code>+
  
  
 and so, in imperfect subjunctive: and so, in imperfect subjunctive:
  
 +    * /s-se :-s/ → //es-sē-s, es-se-m, etc.//
 +
 +
 +As for the imperfect and future, he certainly derived [era:s] from /esa:s/ and [er-o:] from /es-o:/, but he saw in //es-bā-s// “the antecedent of //es-ā-s//” (p. 1967, 65)((  James Foley, 1967, // La prothèse dans le verbe latin  //sum// //, in : Langages 8, dec. 1967, p.  60-66.)) , and in //es-b-ō// the one of //es-ō//, which had the advantage of simplifying the description of the Imperfect morpheme, and explaining the prosthesis from //s-bā-s//, which implies a rule of a b suppression in //es-bā-s//((This synchronic explanation makes it possible to resolve a diachronic problem of the italic comparative linguistics. “The Osq form //fufans// < //*bhu-bha-nt// ‘erant’, the only imperfect example out of Latin in the Italic languages” (according to Monteil, 1970, p. 327), confirm the italic origin of the //-bā-// Imperfect morpheme.  But it is surprising that Latin has only //-ā-// in a verb where Osq has the equivalent to the Latin //-bā-//. A historic assumption similar to that of J. Foley would be better than resorting to a simple and vague “analogical extension peculiar to Latin” (Monteil, p. 327))) . This rule
 +
 +
 +
 +    * s + b → s or b →  Ø / #s ─
 +
 +
 +is not without likelihood, since the sb phonetic group does not exist in Latin, which is a Latin particularity, while this group is possible in Greek in the initial as well as intervocalic position (cf. **sbšnnumi** “embrace”, **pršsbuj** “old”, **prosb£llw** “throw towards”). Thus, if we assume the following rules: 
 +
 +1. Introduction of an epenthetic //u//, when /s/ precedes a person morpheme starting with a nasal consonant, which cannot follow it: thus /s-m/ → //su-m// or //s-um//, /s-mus/ → //su-mus// or //s-umus//, /s-nt/ → //s-unt// 
  
-<code>; +2. Prosthesis of an e vowel, when /s/ is followed by another consonant that is possible in Latin thus /s-tis/ → //es-tis//, /s-s/ → //es-s/
-/s-se :-s/ → es--ses-se-m, etc. +
-</code>+
  
 +3. Simplification of the //s// geminate consonant; thus es-s# → //es// 
  
-As for the imperfect and future, he certainly derived [era:s] from /esa:s/ and [er-o:] from /es-o:/, but he saw in es-bā-“the antecedent of es-ā-s” (p196765) and in es-b-ō the one of es-ōwhich had the advantage of simplifying the description of the Imperfect morphemeand explaining the prosthesis from s-bā-s, which implies rule of a b suppression in es-bā-s . This rule+4. //s// + //b// → //s//, because the //sb// phonetic group is not viable in Latin((The //sp//, //st//, //sc// groups are the only interior groups in //s// that are possible in Latin, as //asper, festus, fascis// (cfTouratier2005//Système des consonnes//p. 124 n. 5).)). Rhotacismusfor the intervocalic /s/ phoneme just before or after morpheme boundary, we can account for //erās// by the following derivation:
  
  
-<code> +    * Foley, p. 65:  \\ “s + bā + \\   ─   (the 1 rule does not apply) \\  es bā =   (the 2 rule, prosthesis) \\   ─   (the 3 rule does not apply) \\  es + ā + s   (the rule 4 cancels the b) \\  er + ā    (the 5 rule, rhotacismus)  \\  //erās//”   .
-s + b → or →  / #─ +
-</code>+
  
  
-is not without likelihood, since the sb phonetic group does not exist in Latin, which is a Latin particularity, while this group is possible in Greek in the initial as well as intervocalic position (cf. sbšnnumi “embrace”, pršsbuj “old”, prosb£llw “throw towards”). Thus, if we assume the following rules: 1. Introduction of an epenthetic u, when /s/ precedes a person morpheme starting with a nasal consonant, which cannot follow it: thus /s-m/ → su-m or s-um, /s-mus/ → su-mus or s-umus, /s-nt/ → s-unt 2. Prosthesis of an e vowel, when /s/ is followed by another consonant that is possible in Latin ; thus /s-tis/ → es-tis, /s-s/ → es-s 3. Simplification of the s geminate consonant; thus es-s# → es 4. s + b → s, because the sb phonetic group is not viable in Latin 5. Rhotacismus, for the intervocalic /s/ phoneme just before or after a morpheme boundary, we can account for erās by the following derivation: 
  
 +Therefore it is possible to say the unmarked signifier of the //es-se// verb is /s-/, /es-/ simply being an allomorph of this /s-/.
  
-<code> 
-“s + bā + s 
-       ─         (the 1 rule does not apply) 
-es + bā = s   (the 2 rule, prosthesis) 
-       ─         (the 3 rule does not apply) 
-es + ā + s    (the rule 4 cancels the b) 
-er + ā s       (the 5 rule, rhotacismus) 
-erās”     (Foley, p. 65). 
-</code> 
  
  
-Therefore it is possible to say the unmarked signifier of the es-se verb is /s-/, /es-/ simply being an allomorph of this /s-/.+The principal parts of the es-se verb being:
  
  
-<code> +    * //su-m, es, fu-ī, fu-tūr-us, es-se//
- The principal parts of the es-se verb being: +
-su-m, es, fu-ī, fu-tūr-us, es-se +
-</code>+
  
  
-it seems that this verb has also a fu- allomorph that appears in the perfectum with a morphological segment /uis ~ u/ rather than a segment / … is ~ /: fu-ī, fu-istī, fu-i-t, fu-i-mus, etc. because fu-ī was the spelling of [fuwi:], which corresponded to [fu-w-i:],  and in the so-called future infinitive: 
  
 +it seems that this verb has also a //fu-// allomorph that appears in the //perfectum// with a morphological segment /uis ~ u/ rather than a segment / … is ~ /: //fu-ī, fu-istī, fu-i-t, fu-i-mus, etc.// because //fu-ī// was the spelling of [fuwi:], which corresponded to [fu-w-i:],  and in the so-called future infinitive:
  
-<code> 
-fu-tūr-um, -am, -um es-se “to be about to be”. 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //fu-tūr-um, -am, -um es-se// “to be about to be”.
  
 It shows another free variant /fo/, which appears in the Imperfect Subjunctive: It shows another free variant /fo/, which appears in the Imperfect Subjunctive:
  
 +    * //fo-re-m, beside es-se-m, fo-rē-s// beside //es-sē-s, etc.//
  
-<code> 
-fo-re-m, beside es-se-m, fo-rē-s beside es-sē-s, etc. 
-</code> 
  
  
-and in the so-called future infinitive fo-re, where there is no morphological segment similar to the one -tūr- of fu-tūr-um es-se.+and in the so-called future infinitive //fo-re//, where there is no morphological segment similar to the one //-tūr-// of //fu-tūr-um es-se//.
  
  
-<code> + 
- 2.The verbs posse and prōdesse seem irregular only provided we do not know the Latin phonological system, because possum is the phonetic realization of /pot-su-m/, and prōsum of /pro:d-su-m/, where the /t/ and /d/ apico-dental phonemes receive a sibilant phonetic realization before a sibilant consonant, and the sibilant geminate is simplified after a long vowel. +    * **7.10.1.2.The verbs posse and prōdesse** seem irregular only provided we do not know the Latin phonological system, because //possum// is the phonetic realization of /pot-su-m/, and //prōsum// of /pro:d-su-m/, where the /t/ and /d/ apico-dental phonemes receive a sibilant phonetic realization before a sibilant consonant, and the sibilant geminate is simplified after //a// long vowel. 
-</code>+
  
  
Ligne 998: Ligne 1058:
  
  
-<code> 
-Pot-es, pot-est, pot-estis 
-prōd-es, prōd-est, prōd-estis  
-pot-er-a-m, pot-er-ā-s, pot-er-a-t, etc. pot-er-ō, pot-er-i-s, pot-er-i-t, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +//Pot-es, pot-est, pot-estis// \\ //prōd-es, prōd-est, prōd-estis// \\  //pot-er-a-m, pot-er-ā-s, pot-er-a-t, etc.// \\  //pot-er-ō, pot-er-i-s, pot-er-i-t, etc.// \\ //prōd-er-a-m, prōd-er-ā-s, prōd-er-at, etc.// \\ //prōd-er-ō, prōd-er-i-s, prōd-er-i-t, etc.//
  
-prōd-er-a-m, prōd-er-ā-s, prōd-er-at, etc. prōd-er-ō, prōd-er-i-s, prōd-er-i-t, etc. When it begins with an s¸ the phonological rule is applied:+When it begins with an //s//¸ the phonological rule is applied:
  
 +    * //pos-su-m, pos-su-mus, pos-s-unt// \\ //prō-su-m, prō-su-mus, prō-s-unt//.
  
-<code> 
-pos-su-m, pos-su-mus, pos-s-unt 
-prō-su-m, prō-su-mus, prō-s-unt. 
-</code> 
  
  
-The only irregularity is, in the verb pos-se, the extension of the /s/ signifier to the imperfect subjunctive and the infinitive, or rather, according to Foley’s assumption, the resort to the unmarked signifier:+The only irregularity is, in the verb //pos-se//, the extension of the /s/ signifier to the imperfect subjunctive and the infinitive, or rather, according to Foley’s assumption, the resort to the unmarked signifier:
  
 +    * /pot-s-sē-s/ and /pot-s-se/
  
-<code> +with moreover the simplifying of the [sss] group, which does not exist in Latin((Cf. Touratier, 2005, p. 1278-128.)) , and the //potu-// variant of the verbal stem in the //perfectum//:
-/pot-s-sē-s/ and /pot-s-se/ +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //pot-u-ī// "I could" [potu-wi:] , //pot-uis-tī, pot-ui-t, etc.//
  
-with moreover the simplifying of the [sss] group, which does not exist in Latin , and the potuvariant of the verbal stem in the perfectum:+But the //prōd-es-se// verb is entirely regular. Its principal parts are:
  
 +    * //prō-su-m, prōd-es, prō-fu-ī, prō-fu-tūrus, prōd-es-se//
  
-<code> +and we findin all the tenses, the forms of the verb //es-se//:
-pot-u-ī "I could" [potu-wi:] pot-uis-tī, pot-ui-tetc.    +
- But the prōd-es-se verb is entirely regular. Its principal parts are: +
-prō-su-m, prōd-es, prō-fu-ī, prō-fu-tūrus, prōd-es-se +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //prō-su-m, prōd-er-a-m, prōd-er-ō, prō-s-i-t, prōd-es-se-m, etc.//
  
-and we find, in all the tenses, the forms of the verb es-se: 
  
 +with only //prō-// before the forms beginning with //s//: 
  
-<code> +    * //prō-sum, prō-sit, etc.//, because of the processing of apicodentals before the sibilant [s].
-prō-su-m, prōd-er-a-m, prōd-er-ō, prō-s-i-t, prōd-es-se-m, etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-with only prō- before the forms beginning with s: prō-sum, prō-sit, etc., because of the processing of apicodentals before the sibilant [s]. 
  
 +    * **7.10.1.3. The compounds ab-es-se or ad-es-se** are not at all irregular. The final consonant of their prefix is only affected by the neutralization of the voicing oppositions before the /s-/ allomorph of the verb //es-se//. But, by analogy, it is not spelt; hence the form written //absum// and //adsum//, despite a pronunciation [apsum] and [assum].
  
-<code> 
-                3. The compounds ab-es-se or ad-es-se are not at all irregular. The final consonant of their prefix is only affected by the neutralization of the voicing oppositions before the /s-/ allomorph of the verb es-se. But, by analogy, it is not spelt; hence the form written absum and adsum, despite a pronunciation [apsum] and [assum]. 
-</code> 
  
  
-As far the de-es-se compound verb, the final vowel of its prefix shows the neutralization of the quantity opposition before the /es-/ allomorph of the es-se verb; hence the variation between dē-su-m and de-es-t. And the inter-es-se verb shows no phonological particularity.+As far the //de-es-se// compound verb, the final vowel of its prefix shows the neutralization of the quantity opposition before the /es-/ allomorph of the //es-se// verb; hence the variation between //dē-su-m// and //de-es-t//. And the //inter-es-se// verb shows no phonological particularity.
  
  
-<code> 
- B. The verb fer-ō and its compounds 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.2. The verb fer-ō and its compounds**
  
-The great irregularity of this verb is the fact that it is a member of the 2a conjugation, but without having the allomorph in i before the morphological segment beginning with a apico-dental consonant, i. e. /s/, /t/ and /r/. It is conjugated like the verb leg-ō, i-s: 
  
  
-<code> +The great irregularity of this verb is the fact that it is member of the 2a conjugationbut without having the allomorph in //i// before the morphological segment beginning with apico-dental consonanti. e. /s//t/ and /r/It is conjugated like the verb //leg-ō, i-s//:
-fer-ēba-m, fer-ēbā-s like leg- ēba-m, leg-ēbā-s, etc. in the imperfect +
-fer-a-mfer-ē-s like meg-a-m, leg-ēs, etc. in the future +
-fer-a-mfer-ā-like leg-a-mleg-ā-s, etcin the subjunctive +
-fer-en-s, -ent-is like leg-en-s, ent-is, in the participle +
-</code>+
  
 +
 +    * //fer-ēba-m, fer-ēbā-s// like //leg- ēba-m, leg-ēbā-s, etc.// in the imperfect \\ //fer-a-m, fer-ē-s// like //meg-a-m, leg-ēs, etc.// in the future \\ //fer-a-m, fer-ā-s// like //leg-a-m, leg-ā-s, etc.// in the subjunctive \\ //fer-en-s, -ent-is// like //leg-en-s, ent-is//, in the participle
  
 but but
  
 +    * //fer-s, fer-t, fer-tis// unlike //legi-s, legi-t, legi-tis// in the present \\ //fer-re// phonetic realization of /fer-se/, unlike //lege-re//, phonetic realization of /legi-se/, in the infinitive \\ //fer-re-m, fer-rē-s// phonetic realizations of /fer-se:-m/, /fer-se:–s/, unlike //lege-re-m, lege-rē-s// phonetic realizations of /legi-se:-m/, /legi-se;-s/, in the imperfect subjunctive. 
  
-<code> +The situation is the same of course in the passive:  
-fer-s, fer-t, fer-tis unlike legi-s, legi-t, legi-tis in the present +
-fer-re phonetic realization of /fer-se/, unlike lege-re, phonetic realization of /legi-se/, in the infinitive +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //fer-ris, fer-tur// in the present, //fer-rī// in the infinitive, //fer-re-r, fer-rē-ris// in the imperfect subjunctive. 
 + 
 +On the other hand, the verb has the allomorph in //i// when it is found before a morphological segment that does not begin with an apico-dental consonant:
  
-fer-re-m, fer-rē-s phonetic realizations of /fer-se:-m/, /fer-se:–s/, unlike lege-re-m, lege-rē-s phonetic realizations of /legi-se:-m/, /legi-se;-s/, in the imperfect subjunctive. The situation is the same of course in the passive fer-ris, fer-tur in the presentfer-rī in the infinitivefer-re-r, fer-rē-ris in the imperfect subjunctiveOn the other hand, the verb has the allomorph in i when it is found before a morphological segment that does not begin with an apico-dental consonant:+    * //feri-mus// “we bear”, //feri-mur// “we are born”, //feri-minī// “you are born”. 
 +  
 +The second irregularity of this verb follows from its principal parts: 
 +    * //fer-ō, fer-stul-ī-t-um, fer-re.//
  
 +It shows therefore an allomorph /tul-/ in context of the //Perfectum// morpheme not preceded by the Passive, the //Perfectum// corresponding then to a morphological segment /…is ~ /, and an allomorph /la:/ in the context of the Passive going with Perfectum:   
  
-<code> +    * //tul-ī// “I bore”//tul-i-t// “he bore”; //lā-t-us su-m// “I am bore”//lā-t-us er-a-m// “I was bore”//lā-tūr-us su-m// “I am about to bear”.  
-feri-mus “we bear”feri-mur “we are borne”, feri-minī “you are borne”. +
- The second irregularity of this verb follows from its principal parts: +
-fer-ō, fer-s, tul-ī, lā-t-umfer-re. +
-</code>+
  
 +The compounds of //fer-re// add to these particularities the phonological particularities that concern the possible consonantal final of their prefix, but are not always spelled:
  
-It shows therefore an allomorph /tul-/ in context of the Perfectum morpheme not preceded by the Passivethe Perfectum corresponding then to a morphological segment /…is ~ /, and an allomorph /la:/ in the context of the Passive going with Perfectum  tul-ī “I bore”tul-i-t “he bore”; lā-t-us su-m “I am borne”, lā-t-us er-a-m “I was borne”, lā-tūr-us su-m “I am about to bear”.  The compounds of fer-re add to these particularities the phonological particularities that concern the possible consonantal final of their prefix, but are not always spelled:+    * //ad-fer-ō// “bring” pronounced [affero:], //ad-fer-sad-tul-ī// pronounced [attuli:], //ad-lā-t-um// pronounced [alla:tum] \\ //ef-fer-ō// “carry or bring out or away”, //ef-fer-s//, //ex-tul-ī, ē--t-um// \\ //dif-fer-ō// “scatter, disperse”, //dif-fer-s//, //distul-ī, dī-lā-t-um// \\ //au-fer-ō// “carry or fetch away”//au-fer-s, abs-tul-ī, ab-lā-t-um// \\ //of-fer-ō// “bring to place”, //of-fer-sob-tul-ī, ob-lā-t-um// \\ //in-fer-ō// “carry or convey into a place”, //in-fer-s, in-tul-ī, il-lā-t-um// \\ //re-fer-ō// “bring back or again”, //re-fer-s, ret-tul-ī, re-lā-t-um// \\ //suf-fer-ō// “submit to”, //suf-fer-s, sus-tul-ī,  sub-lā-t-um//((//Sus-tul-ī// and //sublā-t-um// also supply the perfect and supine of the verb //toll-ō// “pick up”.)) .
  
  
-<code> +    * **7.10.3. The verb //uol-ō// and its compounds**
-ad-fer-ō “bring” pronounced [affero:], ad-fer-s, ad-tul-ī pronounced [attuli:], ad-lā-t-um pronounced [alla:tum] +
-ef-fer-ō “carry or bring out or away”, ef-fer-s, ex-tul-ī, ē-lā-t-um +
-dif-fer-ō “scatter, disperse”, dif-fer-s, distul-ī, dī-lā-t-um +
-au-fer-ō “carry or fetch away”, au¬-fer-s, abs-tul-ī, ab-lā-t-um +
-of-fer-ō “bring to a place”, of-fer-s, ob-tul-ī, ob-lā-t-um +
-in-fer-ō “carry or convey into a place”, in-fer-s, in-tul-ī, il-lā-t-um +
-re-fer-ō “bring back or again”, re-fer-s, ret¬¬-tul-ī, re-lā-t-um +
-suf-fer-ō “submit to”, suf-fer-s, sus-tul-ī,  sub-lā-t-um . +
-C. The verb uol-ō and its compounds +
- 1. The verb uol-ō whose principal parts are +
-</code>+
  
  
-uol-ō, uī-s, uolŭ-ī, uel-le has the particularity of not knowing the allomorph in i uul-t, uul-tis, uel-le phonetic realization of /uel-se /, uel-le-m phonetic realization of /uel-se:-m/ but nevertheless it follows the 2a conjugation, like fer-ō, while it shows some particularities of the su-m conjugationIt is certainly conjugated like fer-ō or leg-ō, with the imperfect uol-ēba-m, uol-ēbā-s and the future uol-a-m, uol-ē-s, like fer-ēba-m and fer-a-m; but in the subjunctive it gives uel-i-m, uel-ī-s etclike s-i-m, s-ī-s etcand it shows the same variant en u- in the present fourth person uolu-mus, like su-mus, and unlike feri-mus To this morphological irregularity is added a phonological particularity that shows that the basic allomorph of the verb is uel-. After an initial u the palatal phoneme /e/ is realized as a velar o before a explosive velar [ł], an u before an implosive [ł], i. e. an [ł] followed by a consonant that is not a second lateral, but an e before a palatal [l]. Thus, the lateral being velar before every vowel except /i/ or every consonant except /l/, /uel/ is realized [woł-] in+    * **7.10.3.1The verb uol-ō** whose principal parts are
  
 +    * //uol-ō, uī-s, uolŭ-ī, uel-le// has the particularity of not knowing the allomorph in //i// //uul-t, uul-tis, uel-le// phonetic realization of /uel-se /, //uel-le-m// phonetic realization of /uel-se:-m/ but nevertheless it follows the 2a conjugation, like //fer-ō//, while it shows some particularities of the //su-m// conjugation. It is certainly conjugated like //fer-ō// or //leg-ō//, with the imperfect //uol-ēba-m, uol-ēbā-s// and the future //uol-a-m, uol-ē-s//, like //fer-ēba-m// and //fer-a-m//; but in the subjunctive it gives //uel-i-m, uel-ī-s etc.// like //s-i-m, s-ī-s etc.// and it shows the same variant en //u-// in the present fourth person //uolu-mus, like su-mus//, and unlike //feri-mus//.  To this morphological irregularity is added a phonological particularity that shows that the basic allomorph of the verb is //uel-//. After an initial //u// the palatal phoneme /e/ is realized as a velar //o// before a explosive velar [ł], an //u// before an implosive [ł], //i. e.// an [ł] followed by a consonant that is not a second lateral, but an //e// before a palatal [l]. Thus, the lateral being velar before every vowel except /i/ or every consonant except /l/, /uel/ is realized [woł-] in
  
-<code> +    * //uol-ō// “I want”, //uolu-mus// “we want”, //uol-unt//  “they want”, //uol-ēba-m// “I wanted”, //uol-ēbā-s, etc. uol-a-m// “I shall want”, //uol-ē-s, etc. uol-en-s////uol-ent-is// “wanting”
-uol-ō “I want”, uolu-mus “we want”, uol-unt  “they want”, uol-ēba-m “I wanted”, uol-ēbā-s, etc. uol-a-m “I shall want”, uol-ē-s, etc. uol-en-s, uol-ent-is “wanting” +
-</code> +
  
 [wuł-] in [wuł-] in
  
- +    * //uul-t// “he want”, //uul-tis// “you want”
-<code> +
-uul-t “he want”, uul-tis “you want” +
-</code> +
  
 but [wel-] in but [wel-] in
  
 +    * //uel-i-m, uel-ī-s, etc.// and //uel-le-m, uel-lē-s, etc.//
  
-<code> 
-uel-i-m, uel-ī-s, etc. and uel-le-m, uel-lē-s, etc. 
-</code> 
  
 +In the second Person of the present //infectum//, the morphological segment //uel-// is replaced by a segment //uī-//, hence //uī-s// “you want” (cf. //in-uī-tus// “not wishing, unwilling”), probably because the consonantal group [ls#] is almost impossible in Latin, //puls, lt-is// “a kind of porridge” quoted by Touratier (2005, p. 127, n. 2) and //uls// “on the farther side of” being the only two examples found in the data basis itinera electronic. In //perfectum// it is the allomorph //uolu-// that is used with the //perfectum// morphological segment /uis ~ u/: 
  
-In the second Person of the present infectum, the morphological segment uel- is replaced by a segment uī-, hence uī-s “you want” (cf. in-uī-tus “not wishing, unwilling”), probably because the consonantal group [ls#] is almost impossible in Latin, puls, lt-is “a kind of porridge” quoted by Touratier (2005, p. 127, n. 2) and uls “on the farther side of” being the only two examples found in the data basis itinera electronic. In perfectum it is the allomorph uolu- that is used with the perfectum morphological segment /uis ~ u/: uolŭ-ī “I wanted” corresponding to [wołu-w-i:], uolŭ-is-tī to [wołu-wis-ti:], etc. 
  
 +    * //uolŭ-ī// “I wanted” corresponding to [wołu-w-i:], //uolŭ-is-tī// to [wołu-wis-ti:], etc.
  
-<code> 
-      2. The compounds 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **7.10.3.2. The compounds**
  
 The two compound verbs /no:n uel/ “be unwilling, will not” and /ma:-uel/ “be more willing, prefer”,  the principal parts of which are: The two compound verbs /no:n uel/ “be unwilling, will not” and /ma:-uel/ “be more willing, prefer”,  the principal parts of which are:
  
 +    * //nōl-ō, nōn uī-s, nōlŭ-ī, nōl-le// \\ //māl-ō, mā-uī-s, mālŭ-ī, māl-le// 
  
-<code> +exactly follow the same conjugation as the simple verb, but show moreover an allomorph that cancels the begin of the simple verb every time that it would receive an intermediate realization, //i. e.// [e] or [o], hence //māl//realization of /ma:-uol-ō///māl-unt//realization of /ma:-uol-unt/, //māl-ēba-m//realization of /ma:-uol-e:ba:-m///māl-a-m//¸ realization of /ma:-uol-a:-m/ \\ //māl-i-m//, realization of /ma:-uel-i-m/, //māl-le-m//¸ realization of /ma:-uel-le:-m/, //mā-le//, realization of /ma:-uel-le/.  \\ //nōl-ō//, realization of /no:n uol-o:/, //nōl-unt//, realization of /no:n uol-unt/, //nōl-ēba-m//, realization of /no:n uol-e:ba:-m/, //nōl-a-m//¸ realization of /no:n uol-a:-m/, \\ //nōl-i-m//, realization of /no:n uel-i-m/, //nōl-le-m//¸ realization of /no:n uel-le:-m/, //nō-le//, realization of /no:n uel-le/, beside these three forms:
-nōl-ō, nōn uī-snōlŭ-īnōl-le +
-māl-ō--smālŭ-ī, māl-le +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //mā-uī-s, mā-uul-t//, and //mā-uul-tis// \\ //nōn uī-s, nōn uul-t, nōn uul-tis//
  
-exactly follow the same conjugation as the simple verb, but show moreover an allomorph that cancels the begin of the simple verb every time that it would receive an intermediate realization, i. e. [e] or [o], hence māl-ō, realization of /ma:-uol-ō/, māl-unt, realization of /ma:-uol-unt/, māl-ēba-m, realization of /ma:-uol-e:ba:-m/, māl-a-m¸ realization of /ma:-uol-a:-m/,  māl-i-m, realization of /ma:-uel-i-m/, māl-le-m¸ realization of /ma:-uel-le:-m/, mā-le, realization of /ma:-uel-le/nōl-ō, realization of /no:n uol-o:/, nōl-unt, realization of /no:n uol-unt/, nōl-ēba-m, realization of /no:n uol-e:ba:-m/, nōl-a-m¸ realization of /no:n uol-a:-m/, nōl-i-m, realization of /no:n uel-i-m/, nōl-le-m¸ realization of /no:n uel-le:-m/, nō-le, realization of /no:n uel-le/, beside these three forms:+which use another allomorph than uel- or uol-.
  
 +    * **7.10.4. The verb //e-ō, ī-re//**
  
-<code> +Having the following principal parts:
-mā-uī-s, mā-uul-t, and mā-uul-tis +
-nōn uī-s, nōn uul-t, nōn uul-tis +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //e-ō, ī-s, i-ī (ī-u-ī), ĭ-t-um, ī-re//
  
-which use another allomorph than uelor uol-.+it is a member of the 2nd conjugation, like its morph //ī-// shows in the second person of the so-called present (//ī-s//) and in the infinitive (//ī-re//), but it uses the imperfect and future morphological segment of the 1st conjugation:
  
 +    * //ī-ba-m// “I went”, //ī-bā-s, ī-b-ō// “I shall go”, //ī-bi-s, etc.//
  
-<code> 
-D. The verb e-ō, ī-re 
-</code> 
  
 +In the participle, it uses the expected segment //-ent-// of the 2nd conjugation, for the singular nominative and neuter accusative, but an allomorph //-unt-// for the other cases: 
  
-Having the following principal parts:+    * //i-en-s// “going (Nom. masc. or neut.)”, //e-unt-is// “going (Gen.)”,…, //e-unt-em// (Acc. masc.), but //i-en-s// “going (Acc.neut.)”, //etc.//  
 +    * 
  
 +In low Latin, the analogical genitive //i-ent-is// was created (cf. //ientibus// in C.I.L. VI, 10241, 12). 
  
-<code> +The gerund has an allomorph //-und-// instead of the expected form //-end-//:
-e-ō, ī-s, i-ī (ī-u-ī), ĭ-t-um, ī-re +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ad e-und-um// “in order to go”, //tempus e-und-ī// “time to go”;
  
-it is a member of the 2nd conjugation, like its morph ī- shows in the second person of the so-called present (ī-s) and in the infinitive (ī-re), but it uses the imperfect and future morphological segment of the 1st conjugation:+Beside these conjugation anomaliesthe verb //ī-re// shows an allomorph //e-// that is phonologically conditioned: it appears before a vowel, different from //e//. Thus //e-ō// “I go”, //e-unt// “they go”, //e-unt-is// “going (Gen.)//e-und-um// , //e-a-m// “I may go”, //e-ā-s//
  
 +but
  
-<code> +    * //i-en-s// “going (Nom.)”phonetic realization of /i:-ent-s/ Before a consonant, it is therefore the allomorph /i:/:
-ī-ba-m “I went”, ī-bā-s, ī-b-ō “I shall go”, ī-bi-s, etc. +
-</code>+
  
  
-In the participle, it uses the expected segment -entof the 2nd conjugationfor the singular nominative and neuter accusative, but an allomorph -untfor the other cases: i-en-s “going (Nom. masc. or neut.)”e-unt-is “going (Gen.)”,…e-unt-em (Acc. masc.)but i-en-s “going (Acc.neut.)”, etc. In low Latin, the analogical genitive i-ent-is was created (cf. ientibus in C.I.L. VI, 10241, 12). The gerund has an allomorph -und- instead of the expected form -end-:+    * //ī-ba-mī-b-ōī-reī-re-m,//
  
 +which receives a short realization before a vowel, as in the perefect //i-ī//, the pluperfect //i-er-am// or the future perfect //i-er-ō//. The verb //ī-re// has another allomorph /i/, which is not an allophone of /i:/, in the supine //ĭ-t-um//, and the so-called future participle //ĭ-tūr-us//.  
  
-<code> +In the //perfectum//the verb //ī-re// regularly uses the morphological segment / … is/:
-ad e-und-um “in order to go”tempus e-und-ī “time to go”; +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //i-ī, i-is-tī, i-i-t, i-i-mus, i-is-tis, i-er-unt// phonetic realization of /i:-is-unt/
  
-Beside these conjugation anomalies, the verb ī-re shows an allomorph ethat is phonologically conditionedit appears before a vowel, different from e. Thus e-ō “I go”, e-unt “they go”e-unt-is “going (Gen.)e-und-um e-a-m “I may go”e-ā-s+without the contraction of //ii// which would lead to a confusion with the present //i-t//, //i-mus//; //ii// before //s// is regularly contracted to //ī//: as //īsse// (= /i:-is-se/)//īstī// (= /i:-is-ti:/), because a confusion with the present is not possible. But a rare perfect in //-uis-// was created particularly in poetry (Cat.66,12: //ī-uer-a-t//)maybe in order to avoid the tribrach //ĭ-ěr-ăt//.
  
  
-<code> 
-but 
-</code> 
  
 +    * **The compound verbs //ad-eō// “approach”** and //in-eō// “enter” are transitive and can be inflected in the passive:
  
-i-en-s “going (Nom.)”phonetic realization of /i:-ent-s/.  Before consonantit is therefore the allomorph /i:/:+    * //ad-eor, ad-ī-ris, ad-ī-tur, ad-ī-mur, ad-ī-minī, ad-e-untur// \\ impf//ad-ī-ba-r//fut. //ad-ī-bo-r//, subj//ad-e-a-r//impf. Subj. //ad-ī-re-r// \\ inf. //ad-ī-rī//, part. //ad-i-t-us//, gerundive //ad-e-und-us// \\ //perfectum ad-i-t-us su-m, er-a-m, er-ō, s-i-m, es-se-m.//
  
 +The simple verb //e-ō// has also some passive forms, but used impersonally: //ī-tur// “some one goes (it is gone)”, //i-t-um est// “some one went”, and //ī-rī// (cf. p. 76 the so-called passive future infinitive). Plautus has a form of passive infinitive //irier//((Plaut, //Rud.// 1242: //Mihi istaec uidetur praeda praedatum irier// “this appears to  be plunder that will soon be plundered from you again” (Cleveland K. Chase, 1919))) . 
  
-<code> +The verb //uēne-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī//  “be sold” (for //uēnum ī-re// “go to sale”)which is used as a passive of //uend-ō, i-s//, //did-ī, di-t-um, e-re// “sell”, follows the conjugation of //e//, and has also several forms in the passive, as the infinitive //ueniri//((Plaut., //Pers.// 577-8 : //Veniri hanc uolo, Si potest// “I want her to be sold, if possible”.)). 
- ī-ba-m, ī-b-ō, ī-re, ī-re-m, +  
-</code>+The verbs //neque-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī, ī-re// “be unable to”, and //que-ō, ī-s, i-ī// or //ī-u-ī, ī-re// “be able to”, follow also the conjugation of //e-ō//which they are compound (//neque-ō// is probably derived from an impersonal phrase //%%*%%neque itur// “it does not go well”, and //que-ō// by backformation from  //neque-ō//).
  
  
-which receives a short realization before a vowel, as in the perefect i-ī, the pluperfect i-er-am or the future perfect i-er-ō. The verb ī-re has another allomorph /i/, which is not an allophone of /i:/, in the supine ĭ-t-um, and the so-called future participle ĭ-tūr-us. In the perfectum, the verb ī-re regularly uses the morphological segment / … is/: 
  
 +   * **7.10.5. The verb //fie-rī//**
 + 
 +    * “1) be made → 2) become”
  
-<code> +This verbthe principal parts of which are 
-i-īi-is-tī, i-i-t, i-i-mus, i-is-tis, i-er-unt phonetic realization of /i:-is-unt/ +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //fī-ō, fī-s,fac-t-us su-m,  fierī// 
 + 
 +is the passive of 
  
-without the contraction of ii which would lead to a confusion with the present i-t, i-mus; ii before is regularly contracted to ī: as īsse (= /i:-is-se)īstī (= /i:-is-ti:/)because a confusion with the present is not possible. But a rare perfect in -uiswas created particularly in poetry (Cat.66,12: ī-uer-a-t), maybe in order to avoid the tribrach ĭ-ěr-ăt.+    * //faciō, i-s, fēc-īfac-t-umface-re// “make”
  
 +which is regular. But it has the imperative //fac//, and the perfectum future //fax-ō//, and //perfectum// subjunctive //fax-i-m//, besides the regular forms //fēc-er-ō// and //fēc-er-i-m//.  
  
-<code> +As for //fī-ō//, its //infectum// system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is //fierem//, and the infinitive //fierī//. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb showsin //infectum//an allomorph /fi:i/ and in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”which is really the passive of “make”and thus it needs no Passive morphemwhich nevertheless appears in the infinitive //fie-rī//In the //perfectum//it is the supine of the verb //faci-ō// “make” that is usedin order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the //perfectum// or the person unit.  
- The compound verbs ad-eō “approach” and in-eō “enter” are transitive and can be inflected in the passive: +
-ad-eorad-ī-risad-ī-tur, ad-ī-mur, ad-ī-minī, ad-e-untur +
-impfad-ī-ba-rfut. ad-ī-bo-rsubj. ad-e-a-rimpf. Subj. ad-ī-re-r +
-inf. ad-ī-rī, partad-i-t-us, gerundive ad-e-und-us +
-perfectum ad-i-t-us su-mer-a-m, er, s-i-m, es-se-m. +
-</code>;+
  
 +The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the //ī// de //fīō// which doesn’t become short before a vowel, and the expected short //ǐ// of //fierem// and //fierī//, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, //fie-rem// corresponding to //cape-rem//, but with one additional //i//, and //fie-rī// to //audī-rī//, but with one additional //e//. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:i/ in the //infectum//, then in /fi:i-o:/ the short //i//, which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence //fī-ō//. And so, for //fī-unt//, //fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s//, //etc.// But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short //i// is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /s/ being between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i/ ~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long //ī// before this vowel receives a bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled //fierem//. And so, /fi:i-ri:/ with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination //-rī// of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  
  
-The simple verb e-ō has also some passive forms, but used impersonally: ī-tur “some one goes (it is gone)”, i-t-um est “some one went”, and ī-rī (cf. p. 76 the so-called passive future infinitive). Plautus has a form of passive infinitive irier . The verb uēne-ōī-si-ī or ī-u-ī  “be sold” (for uēnum ī-re “go to sale”)which is used as passive of uend-ō, i-s, did-ī, di-t-um, e-re “sell”, follows the conjugation of e-ōand has also several forms in the passive, as the infinitive ueniri . The verbs neque-ō, ī-s, i-ī or ī-u-ī, ī-re “be unable to”, and que-ō, ī-s, i-ī or ī-u-ī, ī-re “be able to”, follow also the conjugation of e-ō, which they are compound (neque-ō is probably derived from an impersonal phrase %%*%%neque itur “it does not go well”, and que-ō by backformation from  neque-ō).+As for the other persons of the so-called present//fī-s// corresponds to /fi:i-s/ which  is realized [fi:-s] spelled //fis//because the obligatory contraction into long //ī// of two //i// not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long //ī//there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than //s//hence the phonetic realization [fit].
  
  
-<code> 
-E. The verb fie-rī “1) be made → 2) become” 
-</code> 
  
 +**Most compounds of //faci-ō//** show the morphological alternations /a/ ~ /i/ in an open syllable, and /a/ ~ /e/ in a closed syllable, which are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophony, are inflectd in the following way:
  
-This verb, the principal parts of which are:  fī-ō, -s,fac-t-us su-m fierī is the passive of+    * //con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um-fice-re// « finish »
  
 +and in the passive:
  
-<code> +    * //con-fici-or, -fice-ris-fec-t-us su-mfic-ī.//
-faciō, i-sfēc-īfac-t-umface-re “make” +
-</code>+
  
 +But a few isolated forms of //fī-ō// can occur in these verbs: //confit// “it happens”, //dēfit// “it lacks”, //inter-fī-a-t// “let him perish”, //inter-fie-rī// “to perish”. 
  
-which is regular. But it has the imperative fac, and the perfectum future fax-ō, and perfectum subjunctive fax-i-m, besides the regular forms fēc-er-ō and fēc-er-i-m.  As for fī-ō, its infectum system is regular and belongs to the 2nd conjugation but the subjunctive imperfect is fierem, and the infinitive fierī. This appearent irregularity is very easily explained if we suppose that this verb shows, in infectum, an allomorph /fi:iand in perfectum an allomorph fac-. And the irregularity is the fact that the signifier is associated with the signified “be made”, which is really the passive of “make”and thus it needs no Passive morphem, which nevertheless appears in the infinitive fie-rī. In the perfectum, it is the supine of the verb faci-ō “make” that is used; in order to correspond to the same signified, it needs the Passive morphem and thus the morphological combination with the perfectum or the person unit.  The irregularities mentioned by grammars between the ī de fīō which doesn’t become short before a vowel, and the expected short ǐ of fierem and fierī, which don’t seem to correspond to the 2nd conjugation, fie-rem corresponding to cape-rem, but with one additional i, and fie-rī to audī-rī, but with one additional e. If we admit that this verb has an allomorph /fi:iin the infectumthen in /fi:i-o:the short i, which is between two vowel has a consonantal phonetic realization [j], and the /i:/ which is not found before a vowel has no reason to become short; hence fī. And so, for fī-unt, fī-ēba-m, fī-a-m, fī-ē-s, etc. But in the imperfect subjunctive /fi:i-se:-m/, the short i is before a consonant and therefore has a vocalic realization; but this consonant /sbeing between two vowels and after a morpheme boundary is phonetically realized [r], which leads the neutralization of the /i~ /e/ opposition, and therefore an intermediary realization for the previous vowel. And the long ī before this vowel receives bisegmental realization [ij] because the neutralization of the quantity oppositions, hence [fijerem] spelled fierem. And so, /fi:i-ri:with the not necessary and anomalous morphological combination -rī of passive infinitive  makes [fijeri:], which is fully phonologically normal.  As for the other persons of the so-called present, fī-s corresponds to /fi:i-swhich  is realized [fi:-s] spelled fis, because the obligatory contraction into a long ī of two i not separated by a morpheme boundary; fit corresponds to /fi:i-t/; but beside the contraction into a long ī, there is neutralization if the quantity oppositions before word final consonant other than s, hence the phonetic realization [fit].+Some compounds retain the //a//¸ and normally have //-fi-ō// in the passive: as//pate-faci-ō// “to make visible", //cale-faci-ō// “make hot”, //bene-faci-ō// “do service to”, //satis-faci-ō// “give  satisfaction”
  
 +But occasionly occur //calfacientur// (Vitr. 5,10,1), //satisfacitur// (Var.,// Men.//,82)
  
-<code> 
- Most compounds of faci-ō show the morphological alternations /a/ ~ /i/ in an open syllable, and /a/ ~ /e/ in a closed syllable, which are synchronical consequences of the historical phonetic change called apophony, are inflectd in the following way: 
-con-fici-ō, -fici-s, -fēc-ī, -fec-t-um, -fice-re « finish » 
-</code> 
  
  
-and in the passive:+    * **7.10.6. The verb //ed-ō, i-s, ēd-ī, ē-s-um, e-re//, “eat”**
  
 +which must not be confused with the verb
  
-<code> +    * //ēd-ō, i-sdid-īdi-t-ume-re// “eject, emit”,
-       con-fici-or, -fice-ris-fec-t-us su-mfic-ī. +
-</code>+
  
 +has become a regular verb of the 2a conjugation; but besides the forms in //i// it shows some forms without //i// but with an initial long //ē//, whereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with a short e:    
  
-But a few isolated forms of fī-ō can occur in these verbs: confit “it happens”, dēfit “it lacks”, inter-fī-a-t “let him perish”inter-fie-rī “to perish”. Some compounds retain the a¸ and normally have -fi-ō in the passive: aspate-faci-ō “to make visible"cale-faci-ō “make hot”, bene-faci-ō “do a service to”, satis-faci-ō “give  satisfaction”. But occasionly occur calfacientur (Vitr. 5,10,1), satisfacitur (Var., Men.+    * //ē-s// beside //edi-s////ēs-se-m// beside //ede-re-m//phonetic realization of /edi-se:-m///ēs-se// beside //ede-re// phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  
  
 +which can be descripted by a variant /e:d/ immediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of //%%*%%ed-s// > //%%*%%ēs-s// (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel((cf.  Niedermann, Max, 1953 , //Phon. historique//, p. 69.)) ), and finally //%%*%%ēs-s// > //ēs// ((Cf. Niedemann, 19533, p. 121.))), and //%%*%%ed-tos// > //%%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus//((Cf Niedermann, 1953, p. 149.)) ,// ēsus//((Cf. Niedermann, 19533, p. 148)). But there are also
  
-<code> +//ēstēstis//(the passive //ēs-tur//) beside //edi-tedi-tis// (and //edi-tur//),
-                F. The verb ed-ōi-sēd-ī, ē-s-ume-re, “eat” +
-</code>+
  
  
-which must not be confused with the verb+which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from //%%*%%ed-tis//, as they should have become //%%*%%ēs// and //%%*%%ēsis//, and not //ēs-t// and //ēs-tis//; but “the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes((Cf. Niedermann, 1953, p. 148)) . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in //i// (cf. //s-i-m// and //uel-i-m//), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in //-i-m//, beside the expected subjunctive in //-a-//:
  
  
-<code> +    * //ed-i-med-sed-i-t//, //etc.// beside //eda-med-ā-sed-a-tetc.//
-ēd-ō, i-sdid-ī, di-t-ume-re “ejectemit”, +
-</code>+
  
 +The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age; “Horatius always uses //edim//, Ovidius //edam//” (according to Ernout, 19533, p. 184).
  
-has become a regular verb of the 2a conjugation; but besides the forms in i it shows some forms without i but with an initial long ē, whereas the forms of the 2a conjugation start with a short e:    ē-s beside edi-s, ēs-se-m beside ede-re-m, phonetic realization of /edi-se:-m/, ēs-se beside ede-re phonetic realization of  /edi-se/  which can be descripted by a variant /e:d/ immediately before a phoneme /s/. That   would correspond to the diachronic change of %%*%%ed-s > %%*%%ēs-s (with regressive assimilation and compensatory lengthening of the previous vowel ), and finally %%*%%ēs-s > ēs ), and %%*%%ed-tos > %%*%%ētstos, ēs-sus , ēsus . But there are also 
  
  
-<code> + So the verb //ed-ō/is conjugated in following way:
-ēst, ēstis, (the passive ēs-tur) beside edi-t, edi-tis (and edi-tur), +
-</code>+
  
  
-which cannot correspond to /e:d-t/ and /e:d-tis/, and even result from %%*%%ed-tis, as they should have become %%*%%ēs and %%*%%ēsis, and not ēs-t and ēs-tis; but“the analogical process impeded the phonetic process”, as Ernout writes . Therefore, it is necessary to assume the existence of an allomorph /e:s-/ phonologically conditioned by a morphem beginning with an apico-dental /t/ or /s/. Then, like the verbs without an allomorph in i (cf. s-i-m and uel-i-m), it uses the subjunctive allomorph in -i-m, beside the expected subjunctive in -a-: 
  
 +PRESENT: //ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt// \\ IMPERFECT: //ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc.// \\ SUBJUNCTIVE: //ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc.// \\ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE:  //ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc.// being secondary and analogical((//Ederent// is nevertheless found in Gel. 19,2,7.)) ) \\ IMPERATIVE: //ēs, ēs-te// \\  FUTURE IMPERATIVE: //ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō// \\ INFINITIVE: //ēs-se// (//ede-re// being secondary and analogical) \\ PERFECT INFINITIVE: //ēd-is-se// \\  GERUND: //ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um// \\ SUPINE: //ēs-um, ēs-ū// \\ FUTURE PARTICIPLE: //esūr-us//((Plaut, //Men.// 147 : //Vbi essuri sumus ?// “Where are we going to eat?”)).
  
-<code> 
-ed-i-m, ed-ī-s, ed-i-t, etc. beside ed- a-m, ed-ā-s, ed-a-t, etc. 
-</code> 
  
  
-The two forms concurrently existed until the Augustan age; “Horatius always uses edimOvidius edam” (according to Ernout19533p. 184).+    * **7.10.7. The verb //d-ō// “give”** is regularly conjugated like //am-ōamā-s//but it has an //ă// everywhere //am-ō// has an //ā//except in the present //dā-s// and the imperative //dā//Thus it is conjugated in the following way:
  
  
-<code> +in the present: //d, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt// \\ in the other tenses and moods: //dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.// \\  in the passive: //da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc.//
- So the verb ed-ō is conjugated in following way: +
-</code>+
  
 +If the subjunctive //d-e-m, d-ē-s, d-e-t// is classical, archaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive:
  
-PRESENT    ed- ō, edi-s (ēs), edi-t (ēs-t), edi-mus, edi-tis (ēs-tis), ed-unt   IMPERFECT ed-ēba-m, ed-ēbā-s, ed-ēba-t, etc. SUBJUNCTIVE ed-a-m, (ed-i-m), ed-ā-s (ed-ī-s), ed-a-t (ed-i-t), etc. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ēs-se-m, ēs-sē-s, ēs-se-t, etc. (ed-ere-m, ede-rē-s, etc. being secondary and analogical ) IMPERATIVE ēs, ēs-te FUTURE IMPERATIVE ēs-tō, ēs-tō-te, ed-untō INFINITIVE ēs-se (ede-re being secondary and analogical)  PERFECT INFINITIVE ēd-is-se GERUND ed-end-ī, d-ō, d-um SUPINE ēs-um, ēs-ū  FUTURE PARTICIPLE esūr-us . 
  
 +    * Plaut., //Amph.// 72: //Duint// , Plaut., //Capt.// 947: //ne duīs// , Plaut., //Aul.// 238: //ne duās//. 
  
-<code> 
- G. The verb d-ō “give” is regularly conjugated like am-ō, amā-s, but it has an ă everywhere am-ō has an ā, except in the present dā-s and the imperative dā. Thus it is conjugated in the following way: 
-in the present: d-ō, dā-s, dăt, dă-mus, dă-tis, dă-nt 
-in the other tenses and moods: dă-ba-m, dă-b-ō, dă-re, dă-te, dă-tō, dă-re-m, etc.  
-in the passive: da-ri, da-tur, da-ba-r, da-b-or, da-t-us su-m, da-t-us er-a-m, da-rī, da-t-um es-se, etc. 
-</code> 
  
  
-If the subjunctive d-e-m, d-ē-s, d-e-t is classical, archaic Latin retains subjunctive forms which show the original autonomy of the subjunctive:+    * **7.11. Classified lists of verbs**
  
  
-<code> +    * **7.11.1. The first conjugation**
-Duint (Plaut., Amph. 72), ne duīs (Plaut., Capt. 947), ne duās (Plaut., Aul. 238). +
-</code> +
-<code> +
- 11. Classified lists of verbs +
- A. The first conjugation +
- 1. The 1st conjugation +
-</code>+
  
  
-There are “about 570 verbs in -ē-, among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.143) a. Most of these verbs are inflected like mone-ō “warn”, ŭ-ī, i-t-um: cale-ō “be warm”, debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etcbsome have certainly a perfetum in ŭ-ī, but no supine in i-tum time-ō “fear”, timŭ-ī, ─ care-ō “lack”, carŭ-ī, ─ ege-ō “need”, egŭ-ī, ─ cense-ō “value”, cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um doce-ō “teach”, docŭ-ī, doc-t-um misce-ō “mix”, miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um tene-ō “hold“, tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um torre-ō “roast“, torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um c. Some of these have the same morph in all the form systems: dele-ō “destroy”, dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um fle-ō “weep”, flē-re¸ flē-u-ī, flē-t-um ne-ō “sew”, nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um com-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um ex-ple-ō “fill up”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um im-ple-ō “fill”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um re-ple-ō “fill again”, -plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um+    * **7.11.1.1.** The 1st conjugation
  
  
-<code> 
-             d. some of these have a reduplication perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +There are “about 570 verbs in //-ē-//, among which 180 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.143) 
  
-morde-ō “bite”mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um pende-ō “hang”, pe-pend-ī, ─ sponde-ō “pledge”, spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um tonde-ō “shear”, to-tond-ī (tond)tōn-s-um+    * 7.11.1.1.1. Most of these verbs are inflected like //mone// “warn”//ŭ-ī, i-t-um//:
  
 +    *  //cale-ō// “be warm”, //debe-ō, habe-o, praebe-ō, tace-ō, etc.// 
 +     
 +    * 7.11.1.1.2. some have certainly a //perfetum// in //ŭ-ī//, but no supine in //i-tum//
 + 
 +    *  //time-ō// “fear”, //timŭ-ī//, ─  \\ //care-ō// “lack”, //carŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //ege-ō// “need”, //egŭ-ī//, ─ \\ //cense-ō// “value”, //cēnsŭ-ī, cēn-s-um// \\ //doce-ō// “teach”, //docŭ-ī, doc-t-um// \\ //misce-ō// “mix”, //miscŭ-ī, mix-t-um// \\ //tene-ō// “hold“, //tenŭ-ī, ten-t-um// \\ //torre-ō// “roast“, //torrŭ-ī, tos-t-um// 
 +    
 +    * 7.11.1.1.3. Some of these have the same morph in all the form systems: 
  
-<code> +    * //dele-ō// “destroy”, //dēlē-re, dēlē-u-ī, dēlē-t-um// \\ //fle-ō// “weep”, //flē-re//¸ //flē-u-ī, flē-t-um// \\  //ne-ō// “sew”, //nē-re, nē-u-ī, nē-t-um// \\ //com-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //ex-ple-ō// “fill up”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //im-ple-ō// “fill”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um// \\ //re-ple-ō// “fill again”, //-plē-re, -plē-u-ī, -plē-t-um//.
-   e. a number of these has a sigmatic perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
  
-ārde-ō, ār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um suāde-ō “urge”, suā-s-ī, suā-s-um haere-ō “cling”, hae-s-ī, hae-s-um mane-ō “wait”, man-s-ī, man-s-um fulge-ō “shine”, ful-s-ī, ─ torque-ō “twist”, tor-s-ī, tor-t-um indulge-ō “indulge”, indul-s-ī, indul-t-um  iube-ō “order”, ius-s-ī, ius-s-um auge-ō “increase”, aux-ī, auc-t-um lūce-ō “shine”, lūx-ī, ─ f. some have a lengthening perfectum caue-ō “care”, cāu-ī, cau-t-um faue-ō “favor”, fāu-ī, fau-t-um foue-ō, “cherish”, fōu-ī, fō-t-um moue-ō “move”, mōu-ī, mō-t-um uoue-ō “vow“, uōu-ī, uō-t-um sede-ō “sit”, sēd-ī, ses-s-um uide-ō “see“, uīd-ī, uī-s-um g. three are semi-deponentaude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m sole-ō “be wont“, soli-t-us su-m+    * 7.11.1.1.4. some of these have a reduplication //perfectum//:
  
 +    * //morde-ō// “bite”, //mo-mord-ī, mor-s-um// \\ //pende-ō// “hang”, //pe-pend-ī, ─ // \\ //sponde-ō// “pledge”, //spo-pond-ī, spōn-s-um// \\  //tonde-ō// “shear”, //to-tond-ī (tond-ī), tōn-s-um//.
  
-2. The 1a. conjugation There are “about 3620 verbs in -ā-, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 19533, p.138) 
  
 +    * 7.11.1.1.5. a number of these has a sigmatic //perfectum//:
  
-<code> +    * //ārde-ōār-s-ī, ār-sūr-us// \\ //rīde-ō, rī-s-ī, rī-s-um// \\ //suāde-ō// “urge”, //suā-s-ī, suā-s-um// \\ //haere-ō// “cling”, //hae-s-ī, hae-s-um// \\ //mane-ō// “wait”, //man-s-ī, man-s-um// \\ //fulge-ō// “shine”, //ful-s-ī, ─// \\ //torque-ō// “twist”, //tor-s-ī, tor-t-um// \\ //indulge-ō// “indulge”, //indul-s-ī, indul-t-um// \\ //iube-ō// “order”, //ius-s-ī, ius-s-um// \\  //auge-ō// “increase”, //aux-ī, auc-t-um// \\ //lūce-ō// “shine”, //lūx-ī, ─//.  
- a. most of these verbs have only two allomorphslike amā~ am+      
- btwo verbs have a reduplication perfectum+    * 7.11.1.1.6some have a lengthening //perfectum//:
-</code>+
  
 +    * //caue-ō// “care”, //cāu-ī, cau-t-um// \\ //faue-ō// “favor”, //fāu-ī, fau-t-um// \\ //foue-ō//, “cherish”, //fōu-ī, fō-t-um// \\ //moue-ō// “move”, //mōu-ī, mō-t-um// \\ //uoue-ō// “vow“, //uōu-ī, uō-t-um// \\ //sede-ō// “sit”, //sēd-ī, ses-s-um// \\ //uide-ō// “see“, //uīd-ī, uī-s-um//.
 +    
 +    *  7.11.1.1.7. three are semi-deponent: 
  
--re “give”de-d-ī, dă-t-um stā-re “stand”ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us  c. some verbs have a prefectum in ŭ-ī: crepā-re “resound”, crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um cubā-re “be in bed”cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um domā-re “subdue”, domŭ-ī, domi-t-um secā-re “cut”, secŭ-ī, sec-t-um sonā-re “sound”, sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um tonā-re “thunder“, tonŭ-ī, ─ uetā-re “forbid”, uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um+    * //aude-ō// “dare”//au-s-us su-m// \\ //gaude-ō// “rejoice”//gāuī-s-us su-m// \\ //sole-ō// “be wont“//soli-t-us su-m//
  
  
-<code> +    * **7.11.1.2. The 1a. conjugation.** There are “about 3620 verbs in //-ā-//, among which 1800 are simple verbs” (according to Ernout, 1953, p.138)
-         done verb with a lengthening perfectum +
-</code>+
  
 +    * 7.11.1.2.1. most of these verbs have only two allomorphs, like //amā- ~ am-//
  
-iuuā-re “help”, iūu-ī, iū-t-um+    * 7.11.1.2.2. two verbs have a reduplication perfectum:
  
 +    * //dă-re// “give”, //de-d-ī, dă-t-um// \\ //stā-re// “stand”, //ste-t-ī, stā-tūr-us//
 + 
 +    * 7.11.1.2.3. some verbs have a //perfectum// in //ŭ-ī//:
 +  
 +    * //crepā-re// “resound”, //crepŭ-ī, crepi-t-um// \\ //cubā-re// “be in bed”, //cubŭ-ī, cubi-t-um// \\ //domā-re// “subdue”, //domŭ-ī, domi-t-um// \\ //secā-re// “cut”, //secŭ-ī, sec-t-um// \\ //sonā-re// “sound”, //sonŭ-ī, soni-t-um// \\ //tonā-re// “thunder“, //tonŭ-ī, ─ // \\ //uetā-re// “forbid”, //uetŭ-ī, ueti-t-um//.
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.1.2.4. one verb with a lengthening perfectum
-BThe 2nd  conjugation +
-  1. The 2nd conjugation +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //iuuā-re// “help”, //iūu-ī, iū-t-um//
  
-There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in -ŭri-ō, among  which only two are in common usage:  par-turī-re “be in labor” from pari-ō “bring forth”, and ēsurī-re “be hungry” from ed-ō “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives ī-re (according to Mignot, 1969, Les verbes dénominatifs latins, p51) a. Verbs with a -uis- perfectum: audī-re,  sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum “bury”; cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re “wish for, desire”; sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re “have a taste, show good sense”,” bVerbs in ŭī: aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum “open”, operī-re, uī, tum “cover”,  salī-re, uī, tum “jump, leap”; rapi-ō, e-re, u¬¬ī, t-um “take away”+    * **7.11.2The 2nd  conjugation**
  
 +    * **7.11.2.1. The 2nd conjugation**
  
-<code> +There are ─ beside 5 deponents and some derivatives in //-ŭri-ō//, among  which only two are in common usage//par-turī-re// “be in labor” from //pari-ō// “bring forth”and //ēsurī-re// “be hungry” from //ed-ō// “eat”  ─ 65 denominatives //ī-re// (according to Mignot, 1969, //Les verbes dénominatifs latins//, p. 51) 
-c. Verbs with lengthening perfectumuenī-re, uēn, uen-tum “come”; +
-</code>+
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.1.: Verbs with a //-uis- perfectum//:
 +  
 +    *  audī-re, \\ //sepelī-re, sepelī-u-ī, pul-tum// “bury”; \\ //cupi-ō, cupī-u-ī, cupī-t-um, e-re// “wish for, desire”; \\ //sapi-ō, sapī-u-ī, e-re// “have a taste, show good sense”,” 
 +     
 +    * 7.11.2.1.2. Verbs in //ŭī//: 
 +    
 +    * //aperī-re, aperŭ-ī, aper-tum// “open”, \\ //operī-re, uī, tum// “cover”, \\ //salī-re, uī, tum// “jump, leap”; \\ //rapi-ō, e-re, uī, t-um// “take away”.
  
-fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re “dig”; faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re “make”; iaci-ō, iēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re “throw”; fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re “flee”+    * 7.11.2.1.3. Verbs with lengthening //perfectum//: 
  
 +    * //uenī-re, uēn-ī, uen-tum// “come”; \\ //fodi-ō, fōd-ī, fos-sum, fode-re// “dig”; \\ //faci-ō, fēc-ī, fac-tum, face-re// “make”; \\ //iaci-ō, iēc-ī, iac-tum, iace-re// “throw”; \\  //fugi-ō, fūg-ī, fugi-tūr-us, fuge-re// “flee”.
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.1.4. Verbs with sigmatic //perfectum//:
-d. Verbs with sigmatic prefectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum)// “stuff”; \\  //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum//, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (//haurī-// < //%%*%%hausi-//), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine). \\ //sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum// “patch”, \\ //sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum// “feel”, \\ //uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum// “bind” \\ //quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re// “shake”; \\ //concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re// “shake”; \\ //percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re// “strike forcibly hit”. \\ 
  
-farcī-re, far-s-ī, far-tum (farc-tum) “stuff”;  haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum, this verb shows the difference between the historic rhotacismus, which happened (haurī- < %%*%%hausi-), and the synchronic rhotacismus, which doesn’t happen (/hauri:/ alternating with /haus/ in the perfect and supine).  sarcī-re, sars-ī, sar-tum “patch”, sentī-re, sen-s-ī, sen-sum “feel”, uincī-re, uinx-ī, uinc-tum “bind” quati-o, ─,  quas-sum,  quate-re “shake”; concuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum, -cute-re “shake”: percuti-ō, -cus-sī, -cus-sum,-cute-re “strike forcibly hit”. 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.1.5. Verbs with Reduplication //perfectum//:
  
-<code> 
-e. Verbs with Reduplication perfectum: 
-</code> 
  
 +    * //pari-o, pe-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re// “give birth to, bear”.
 +   
  
-pari-o, pe-per-ī, par-tum, pare-re “give birth to, bear”.+    * **7.11.2.2. The 2a conjugation**
  
 +“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 1953, p. 124) 
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.1. with sigmatic //perfectum//: stem ending with a bilabial:  
-2. The 2a conjugation +  
-<;/code>;+    * //carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum// “pluck”\\ //rēp-ō// “creep”, //rēp-s-ī, ─ //; \\   //scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum// “scrape”; \\ //sculp-ō// “carve”, //sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;// \\ //serp-ō// “crawl”, //serp-s-ī, ─//;  
 +  
 +stem ending with a voiced bilabial: 
  
 +    * //nūb-ō// “marry”, //nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum//; \\  //scrīb-ō// “write”, //scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum//. 
  
-“about 570 simple verbs and 1830 compound verbs,  in all: about 2400 verbs” (Ernout, 19533, p. 124) a. with sigmatic perfectum: stem ending with a bilabial: carp-ō, carp-s-ī, carp-tum “pluck”; rēp-ō “creep”, rēp-s-ī, ─ ;  scalp-ō, scalp-s-ī, scalp-tum “scrape”; sculp-ō “carve”, sculp-s-ī, sculp-tum;  serp-ō “crawl”, serp-s-ī, ─; stem ending with a voiced bilabial: nūb-ō “marry”, nūp-s-ī, nūp-tum;  scrīb-ō “write”, scrīp-s-ī, scrīp-tum. stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: cēd-ō “yield”, ces-s-ī, ces-sum; claud-ō “shut”, clau-s-ī, claus-sum; dīuid-ō “divide”, dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum; frend-ō “gnash”, ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum);  laed-ō “hurt”, lae-s-ī, lae-sum;  lūd-ō “play”, lūd-ī, lū-sum; plaud-ō “applaud”, plau-s-ī, plau-sum; rād-ō “scrape”, rā-s-ī, rā-sum;  rōd-ō “gnaw”, rō-s-ī, rō-sum; trūd-ō “thrust”, trū-s-ī, trū-sum; uād-ō “go”, uā-s-ī, uā-sum. mitt-ō “send”, mī-s-ī (= /mi:t-s-i:/), mis-sum (= /mit-sum/); omitt-ō “release from”, omī-s-ī, omis-sum.    stem ending with  a velar: dīc-ō “say”, dīx-ī, dic-tum; dūc-ō “guide”, dūx-ī, duc-tum; stem ending with a voiced velar: ang-ō “choke”, ānx-ī, ─; cing-ō “bind”, cinx-ī, cinc-tum; ēmung-ō “clean out”, -mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum; fīg-ō “fix”, fīx-ī, fīx-um; fing-ō “fashion”, finx-ī, fic-tum; -flīg-ō “smite”, -flīx-ī, -flīc-tum;  frig-ō “fry”, frīx-ī, frīc-tum; iung-ō “join”, iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum; perg-ō “go on”, perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum; ping-ō “paint”, pīnx-ī, pic-tum;  plang-ō “beat”, plānx-ī, plānc-tum; reg-ō “rule”, rēx-ī, rēc-tum; string-ō “bind”, strīnx-ī, stric-tum; sūg-ō “suck”, sūx-ī, sūc-tum; surg-ō “rise”, surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum; teg-ō “shelter”, tēx-ī, tēc-tum; ting-ō “stain”, tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum; merg-ō “plunge”, mer-s-ī, mer-sum; sparg-ō “scatter”, spar-s-ī, spar-sum;  terg-ō “wipe”, ter-s-ī, ter-sum; stem ending with  a labiovelar: coqu-ō “cook”, cox-ī, coc-tum; -stingu-ō “quench”, -stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum; ungu-ō (ung-ō) “anoint”, ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum; stem ending with ct: flect-ō “bend”, flex-ī, flex-um; nect-ō “weave”, nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um;  pect-ō “comb”, pex-ī, pex-um; plect-ō “braid”, plex-ī, plec-tum.   stem ending with a nasal:   cōm-ō “comb, deck”, cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum; dēm-ō “take away”, dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum; prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum “press”; prōm-ō “bring out”, prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum; sūm-ō “take”, sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum.  temn-ō “despise”, temp-s-ī, temp-tum.+stem ending with a voiced apico-dental: 
  
 +    * //cēd-ō// “yield”, //ces-s-ī, ces-sum//; \\ //claud-ō// “shut”, //clau-s-ī, claus-sum//; \\ //dīuid-ō// “divide”, //dīuī-s-ī, dīuī-sum//; \\ //frend-ō// “gnash”,// ─, frēs-sum (fres-sum)//; \\ //laed-ō// “hurt”, //lae-s-ī, lae-sum//; \\ //lūd-ō// “play”, //lūd-ī, lū-sum//; \\ //plaud-ō// “applaud”, //plau-s-ī, plau-sum//; \\ //rād-ō// “scrape”, //rā-s-ī, rā-sum//; \\   //rōd-ō// “gnaw”, //rō-s-ī, rō-sum//; \\ //trūd-ō// “thrust”, //trū-s-ī, trū-sum//; \\ //uād-ō// “go”, //uā-s-ī, uā-sum//. \\ //mitt-ō// “send”, //mī-s-ī// (= /mi:t-s-i:/), //mis-sum// (= /mit-sum/); \\ //omitt-ō// “release from”, //omī-s-ī, omis-sum//.
  
-flu-ō “flow”, flūx-ī, flux-um; stru-ō “build”, strūx-ī, strūc-tum. trah-ō “drag”, trāx-ī, trāc-tum; ueh-ō “draw”, uēx-ī, uec-tum.  uīu-ō “live”, uīx-ī, uīc-tum.  ger-ō “carry”, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/);  ūr-ō “burn”, us-s-ī, us-tum. b. with -uis- or  only -is- Perfectum? acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum “sharpen”; the present acu-ō  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf. acū-tum). As for the perfect acu-ī, is it perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  argu-ō “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), argu-ī, argū-tum; imbu-ō “give a taste of”, imbu-ī, imbū-tum;  lu-ō “wash”, lu-ī, -lū-tum; metu-ō “fear”, metu-ī, metū-tum; minu-ō “lessen”, minu-ī, minū-tum; statu-ō “establish”, statu-ī, statū-tum; su-ō “sew”, su-ī, sū-tum; (ex)u-ō “put off”, u-ī, ū-tum;  tribu-ō “assign”, tribu-ī, tribū-tum; (con)gru-ō  “agree”, gru-ī, ─  ; -nu-ō “nod”, -nu-ī, ─ ; spu-ō “spit”, spu-ī, ─ ; sternu-ō  “sneeze”, sternu-ī, ─ ; ru-ō “fall”, ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us), /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is rutum and not %%*%%rūtum. Perfectum in [i:-wis]: arcess-ō “summon”, arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum; capess-ō “undertake”, capessī-u-ī, ─ ;  incess-ō “attack”, incessī-u-ī, ─ ; lacess-ō “provoke”, lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum; pet-ō “seek to obtain”, petī-u-ī or peti-ī, petī-tum; quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum; rud-ō “bray”, rudī-u-ī, ─ ; scisc-ō “decree”, scī-u-ī, scī-tum;  ter-ō “rub”, trī-u-ī, trī-tum. sin-ō “permit”, sī-u-ī, si-tum. perfectum in [u-wis]: al-ō “nourish”, alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum); col-ō “dwell, till”, colu-ī, cultum; compēsc-ō “restrain”, compēscu-ī, ─ ; cōnsul-ō “consult”, cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum; -cumb-ō “lie down”, -cubu-ī, cubi-tum; deps-ō “knead”, dessu-ī, deps-tum; frem-ō “roar”, fremu-ī, ─ ; gem-ō “groan”, gemu-ī, ─ ; gign-ō “beget”, genu-ī, geni-tum; met-ō “reap”, messu-ī, -messum; mol-ō “grind”, molu-ī, moli-tum; occul-ō “hide”, occulu-ī, occul-tum; pōn-ō “put”, posu-ī, posi-tum; ser-ō “entwine”, seru-ī, ser-tum; stert-ō “snore”, stertu-ī, ─ ; strep-ō “sound”, strepu-ī,  ─ ; tex-ō “weave”, texu-ī, tex-tum; trem-ō “tremble”, tremu-ī, ─ ; uom-ō “vomit”, uomu-ī, ─ .   “the perfect in -uī had a great success: in the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 19533, p. 208). perfectum in [e:-wis]: cern-ō “decree”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; consuesc-ō “become accustomed“, consuēu-ī, consuē-tum; crēsc-ō “increase”, crē-u-ī, crē-tum; (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”, adolē-u-ī, adultum; quiēsc-ō “rest”, quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum; ser-ō “sow”, sē-u-ī, sa-tum;  spern-ō “scorn”, sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum; suēsc-ō “be wont”, suē-u-ī, suē-tus. pāsc-ō “feed”, pā-u-ī, pās-tum; stern-ō, strā-u-ī, strā-tum “strew”. cognosc-ō “get to know”, cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō “forgive”, ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum; nosc-ō “know”, nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum.    c. with the same allomorph in perfectum as in infectum; and consequently  with perfectum  in /is/ or /…is/: bibo “drink”, bib-ī (pō-tuī); īc-ō “hit”, īc-ī, ic-tum; -cend-ō “kindle”, -cend-ī,-censum; -scend-ō “climb”, -scend-ī, -scen-sum; cūd-ō “forge”, -cūd-ī, -cū-sum; -fend-ō “ward off”, -fend-ī, -fen-sum; mand-ō “chew”, mand-ī, man-sum;  pand-ō “open”, pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum);  pīns-ō (pīs-ō) “bruise”, pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum); prehend-ō “seize”, prehend-ī, prehen-sum; scand-ō “climb”, ascend-ī, ascen-sum; sīd-ō “settle”, sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum; strīd-ō “whiz”, strīd-ī ─; uell-ō « pluck », uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum; uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum “sweep”; uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum “turn”;  animaduert-ō “pay attention to”, uert-ī, uer-sum; uīs-ō “go and look”, uīs-ī, uī-sum.+stem ending with  a velar
  
 +    * //dīc-ō// “say”, //dīx-ī, dic-tum//; \\ //dūc-ō// “guide”, //dūx-ī, duc-tum//;
  
-solu-ō “moose, pay”, solu-ī, solū-tum; [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/, [solw--i:] and [solu:-tus], phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/; uolu-ō “turn”, uolu-ī, uolū-tum.   consequ-or «follow », consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m . d. with a reduplication perfectumcad-ō “fall”, ce-cid-ī, cā-sum; caed-ō “cut”, ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum; can-ō “sing”, ce-cin-ī, can-tum; scind-ō “tear”, scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum; tang-ō “touch”, tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum; at-ting-ō “touch”, at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum; cond-ō “put away” , conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum ; pell-ō “push”, pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum; perd-ō “ruin, destroy”, perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum ; posc-ō “ask”, posce-re, po-posc-ī ; prae-st-ō “be superior to others”, prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum);  prōd-ō “give birth to”, prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum; uend-ō “sell”, uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum.+stem ending with a voiced velar
  
 +    * //ang-ō// “choke”, //ānx-ī, ─//; \\ //cing-ō// “bind”, //cinx-ī, cinc-tum//; \\ //ēmung-ō// “clean out”, //-mūnx-ī, -mūnc-tum//; \\ //fīg-ō// “fix”, //fīx-ī, fīx-um//; \\ //fing-ō// “fashion”, //finx-ī, fic-tum//; \\ //-flīg-ō// “smite”, //-flīx-ī, -flīc-tum//; \\   //frig-ō// “fry”, //frīx-ī, frīc-tum//; \\ //iung-ō// “join”, //iūnx-ī, iūnc-tum//; \\ //perg-ō// “go on”, //perrēx-ī, perrēc-tum//; \\ //ping-ō// “paint”, //pīnx-ī, pic-tum//; \\  //plang-ō// “beat”, //plānx-ī, plānc-tum//; \\ //reg-ō// “rule”, //rēx-ī, rēc-tum//; \\ //string-ō// “bind”, //strīnx-ī, stric-tum// ; \\ //sūg-ō// “suck”, //sūx-ī, sūc-tum//; \\ //surg-ō// “rise”, //surrēx-ī, surrēc-tum//; \\ //teg-ō// “shelter”, //tēx-ī, tēc-tum//; \\ //ting-ō// “stain”, //tīnx-ī, tīnc-tum//; \\ //merg-ō// “plunge”, //mer-s-ī, mer-sum//; \\ //sparg-ō// “scatter”, //spar-s-ī, spar-sum//; \\ //terg-ō// “wipe”, //ter-s-ī, ter-sum//; 
  
-<code> +stem ending with  labiovelar
-e . with a lengthening perfectum: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //coqu-ō// “cook”, //cox-ī, coc-tum//; \\ //-stingu-ō// “quench”, //-stīnx-ī, -stīnc-tum//; \\ //ungu-ō (ung-ō)// “anoint”, //ūnx-ī, ūnc-tum//;  
 + 
 +stem ending with //ct//: 
  
-ag-ō “drive”ēg-ī, āc-tum. ed-ō “eat”, ēd-ī, ē-sumleg-ō “gather”lēg, lec-tum; em-ō “buy”, ēm-ī, emp-tum. cōg-ō  “drive together” (=co+agō), cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tumrelinqu-ō  “leaveabandon”, relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tumcollig-ō “gather together, collect”, collige-recollēg-ī, collec-tum.+    * //flect// “bend”//flex-ī, flex-um//\\ //nect// “weave”//nex-ī (nexu-i), nex-um//\\ //pect// “comb”//pex-ī, pex-um//\\ //plect// “braid”//plex-ī, plec-tum //  
  
 +stem ending with a nasal:   
  
-<;code>; +    * //cōm-ō// “comb, deck”, //cōmp-s-ī, cōmp-tum//\\ //dēm-ō// “take away”, //dēmp-s-ī, dēmp-tum//\\ //prem-ō, pres-s-ī, pres-sum// “press”; \\ //prōm-ō// “bring out”, //prōmp-s-ī, prōmp-tum//; \\ //sūm-ō// “take”, //sūmp-sī, sūmp-tum//\\ //temn-ō// “despise”, //temp-s-ī, temp-tum//. \\ //flu-ō// “flow”, //flūx-ī, flux-um//\\ //stru-ō// “build”, //strūx-ī, strūc-tum//. \\ //trah-ō// “drag”, //trāx-ī, trāc-tum//; \\ //ueh-ō// “draw”, //uēx-ī, uec-tum//. \\  //uīu-ō// “live”, //uīx-ī, uīc-tum//. \\  //ger-ō// “carry”, //ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (there are two allomorphs /geri/ ~ /ges/); \\  //ūr-ō// “burn”, //us-s-ī, us-tum//.
-         CSome irregularities +
-            • Verbs with consonantal alternation: +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-ger-ō “bear, carry”,  gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum (= /geri ~ gerand /ges/);   quer-or “complain”, quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m (= /kweri ~ kwerand /kwes+ Passive); ūr-ō “burn”, ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum (= /ūri ~ ūrand /us/); quaer-ō “seek”, quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum (= /kwairi ~ kwairand /kwaisi:/); hauri-ō “drain”, haurī-re “drain”, hau-s-ī, haus-tum (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).+    * 7.11.2.2.2. with //-uis-// or  only //-is-// //Perfectum//
  
 +    * //acu-ō, acu-ī, acū-tum// “sharpen”; the present //acu-ō//  corresponds to [akuwo:], which is the phonetic realization of /aku:-o:/ (cf. //acū-tum//). As for the perfect //acu-ī//, is it a perfect in /is/, as /aku:-i:/ or /aku-i:/, or a perfect in /uis/?  If it was in /uis/, it would correspond to a phonological sequence /aku:-uis-/ or /aku-u-i:/.  
 +   
 +    * //argu-ō// “accuse” (= /argu:-ō/), //argu-ī, argū-tum//; \\ //imbu-ō// “give a taste of”, //imbu-ī, imbū-tum//; \\ //lu-ō// “wash”, //lu-ī, -lū-tum//; \\ //metu-ō// “fear”, //metu-ī, metū-tum//; \\ //minu-ō// “lessen”, //minu-ī, minū-tum//; \\ //statu-ō// “establish”, //statu-ī, statū-tum//; \\ //su-ō// “sew”, //su-ī, sū-tum//; \\ //(ex)u-ō// “put off”, //u-ī, ū-tum//; \\ //tribu-ō// “assign”, //tribu-ī, tribū-tum//; \\ //(con)gru-ō//  “agree”, //gru-ī, ─  //; \\ //-nu-ō// “nod”, //-nu-ī, ─ //; \\ //spu-ō// “spit”, //spu-ī, ─ //; \\ //sternu-ō//  “sneeze”, //sternu-ī, ─ //; \\ //ru-ō// “fall”, //ru-ī, rŭ-tum (rui-tūr-us)//, /ruo:/ would be better than /ruuo:/, because it would explain why the supine is //rutum// and not //%%*%%rūtum//. 
 + 
 +//Perfectum// in [i:-wis]: 
  
-nōsc-ō “know”nosce-re, nōu-ī, -tum (= /nōskand //)cognosc-ō “get to know”cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum; ignosc-ō  “forgive”ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum. crēsc-ō “increase”crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum (= /kre:skand /kre:/);  suēsc-ō “be wont”suē-u-ī, suē-tus (= /suēsk/and /suē/); (ad)olēsc-ō “grow up”adolē-u-ī, adultumquiēsc-ō “rest”quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum. pāsc-ō “feed”-u-ī, pās-tum (= /pāskand //);+    * //arcess// “summon”//arcessī-u-ī, arcessī-tum//; \\ //capess-ō// “undertake”, //capessī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //incess// “attack”//incessī-u-ī─ //; \\ //lacess-ō// “provoke”, //lacessī-u-ī, lacessī-tum//\\ //pet// “seek to obtain”//petī-u-ī// or //peti-ī, petī-tum//; \\ //quaer// “seek”//quaesī-u-ī// or //quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum//; \\ //rud// “bray”//rudī-u-ī, ─ //; \\ //scisc// “decree”//scī-u-ī, scī-tum//\\  //ter// “rub”//trī-u-ī, trī-tum//\\ //sin// “permit”//sī-u-ī, si-tum//.  
 +   
 +//perfectum// in [u-wis]: 
  
 +    * //al-ō// “nourish”, //alu-ī, al-tum (ali-tum)//; \\ //col-ō// “dwell, till”, //colu-ī, cultum//; \\ //compēsc-ō// “restrain”, //compēscu-ī, ─ //; \\ //cōnsul-ō// “consult”, //cōnsulu-ī, cōnsul-tum//; \\ //-cumb-ō// “lie down”, //-cubu-ī, cubi-tum//; \\ //deps-ō// “knead”, //dessu-ī, deps-tum//; \\ //frem-ō// “roar”, //fremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gem-ō// “groan”, //gemu-ī, ─ //; \\ //gign-ō// “beget”, //genu-ī, geni-tum//; \\ //met-ō// “reap”, //messu-ī, -messum//; \\ //mol-ō// “grind”, //molu-ī, moli-tum//; \\ //occul-ō// “hide”, //occulu-ī, occul-tum//; \\ //pōn-ō// “put”, //posu-ī, posi-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “entwine”, //seru-ī, ser-tum//; \\ //stert-ō// “snore”, //stertu-ī, ─ //; \\ //strep-ō// “sound”, //strepu-ī,  ─ //; \\ //tex-ō// “weave”, //texu-ī, tex-tum//; \\ //trem-ō// “tremble”, //tremu-ī, ─ //; \\ //uom-ō// “vomit”, //uomu-ī, ─ //.
  
-<code> +“the perfect in -uī had great successin the late adge, it replaced some old lengthened or sigmatic perfect: arduī, leguī, reguī instead of arsī¸ lēgī, rēxī” (Ernout, 1953, p. 208).
-  • Verbs with suppletive stem: +
-</code>+
  
 +//perfectum// in [e:-wis]: 
  
-toll-ō “pick up”, tolle-resustul-ī, sublā-tum. fer-ō “carry”fer-stul-ī, lātum.+    * //cern// “decree”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //consuesc-ō// “become accustomed“, //consuēu-ī, consuē-tum//; \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crē-u-ī, crē-tum//; \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-īadultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//; \\ //ser-ō// “sow”, //sē-u-ī, sa-tum//; \\ //spern-ō// “scorn”, //sprē-u-ī, sprē-tum//; \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus//\\ //pāsc// “feed”//pā-u-īpās-tum//; \\ //stern-ō//, //strā-u-ī, strā-tum// “strew”. \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re, cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō// “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//; \\ //nosc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum//\\    
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.3. with the same allomorph in //perfectum// as in //infectum//; and consequently  with //perfectum//  in /is/ or /…is/:
  
-<;code>; +    * //bibo// “drink”, //bib-ī// (//pō-tuī//)\\ //īc-ō// “hit”, //īc-ī, ic-tum//\\ //-cend-ō// “kindle”//-cend-ī,-censum//\\ //-scend-ō// “climb”, //-scend-ī, -scen-sum//; \\  //cūd-ō// “forge”, //-cūd-ī, -cū-sum//; \\ //-fend-ō// “ward off”, //-fend-ī, -fen-sum//; \\ //mand-ō// “chew”, //mand-ī, man-sum//; \\ //pand-ō// “open”, //pand-ī, pan-sum (pas-sum)//; \\ //pīns-ō (pīs-ō)// “bruise”, //pīns-ī, pīns-um (pīns-tum, pīs-tum)//; \\ //prehend-ō// “seize”, //prehend-ī, prehen-sum//; \\ //scand-ō// “climb”, //ascend-ī, ascen-sum//; \\ //sīd-ō// “settle”, //sīd-ī (-sēd-ī), -ses-sum//; \\ //strīd-ō// “whiz”, //strīd-ī ─//; \\  //uell-ō// « pluck », //uell-ī (-uul-sī), uul-sum//; \\ //uerr-ō, uerr-ī, uer-sum// “sweep”; \\ //uert-ō, uert-ī, uer-sum// “turn”; \\ //animaduert-ō// “pay attention to”, //uert-ī, uer-sum//; \\ //uīs-ō// “go and look”, //uīs-ī, uī-sum//.
-      • Defective verbsthe signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of Perfectum: +
-<;/code>;+
  
  
-coep-ī “I began”coep-is-tīcoep-is-sememin-ī “I remember”memin-is-memin-is-seōd-ī “I hate”ōd-is-ōd-is-se.+    * //solu-ō// “moose, pay”//solu-īsolū-tum// [solw-o:] = /solu-o:/[solw--i:] and [solu:-tus]phonetic realization of /soluu-t-us/\\ //uolu-ō// “turn”, //uolu-ī, uolū-tum//.  \\ //consequ-or// «follow »//consequ-ī, consecū-t-us su-m// 
  
 +    * 7.11.2.2.4. with a reduplication //perfectum//: 
 + 
 +    * //cad-ō// “fall”, //ce-cid-ī, cā-sum//; \\ //caed-ō// “cut”, //ce-cīd-ī, cae-sum//; \\ //can-ō// “sing”, //ce-cin-ī, can-tum//; \\ //scind-ō// “tear”, //scicid-ī (-scid-ī), sci-sum//; \\ //tang-ō// “touch”, //tange-re, te-tig-ī, tac-tum//; \\ //at-ting-ō// “touch”, //at-tinge-re, at-ø-tig-ī, at-tac-tum//; \\ //cond-ō// “put away” , //conde-re, condid-ī, condi-tum// ; \\ //pell-ō// “push”, //pelle-re, pe-pul-ī, pul-sum//; \\ //perd-ō// “ruin, destroy”, //perdere, perdid-ī, perdi-tum// ; \\ //posc-ō// “ask”, //posce-re, po-posc-ī// ; \\ //prae-st-ō// “be superior to others”, //prae-stā-re, prae-sti-t-ī, prae-stā-tum (prae-sti-tum)//; \\ //prōd-ō// “give birth to”, //prōde-re, prōdid-ī, prōdi-tum//; \\ //uend-ō// “sell”, //uende-re, uendid-ī, uendi-tum//.
  
-• Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the Perfectum morpheme: aude-ō “dare”, au-s-us su-m;  gaude-ō “rejoice”, gāuī-s-us su-m ; sole-ō “be wont”, soli-t-us su-m; fīd-ō “trust”, fīde-re, fī-s-us sum. 
  
  
-<code> +    * 7.11.2.2.5. with a lengthening //perfectum//:
-       • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed: +
-</code>+
  
 +    * //ag-ō// “drive”, //ēg-ī, āc-tum//. \\ //ed-ō// “eat”, //ēd-ī, ē-sum//; \\ //leg-ō// “gather”, //lēg-ī, lec-tum//; \\ //em-ō// “buy”, //ēm-ī, emp-tum//. \\ //cōg-ō//  “drive together” (=//co+agō//), //cōge-re, coēg-ī, coac-tum//; \\ //relinqu-ō//  “leave, abandon”, //relinque -re, relīqu-ī, relic-tum//; \\ //collig-ō// “gather together, collect”, //collige-re, collēg-ī, collec-tum//.
  
-mere-ō “I deserve” , merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum or mere-or “I deserve”, merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m  «mériter». 
  
 +    * **7.11.3. Some irregularities**
 +
 +    * • Verbs with consonantal alternation:
 +
 +    * //ger-ō// “bear, carry”,  //gere-re, ges-s-ī, ges-tum// (= /geri ~ ger/ and /ges/); \\    //quer-or// “complain”, //quere-ris, quer-ī, ques-t-us su-m// (= /kweri ~ kwer/ and /kwes/ + Passive); \\ //ūr-ō// “burn”, //ūre-re, us-s-ī, us-tum// (= /ūri ~ ūr/ and /us/); \\ //quaer-ō// “seek”, //quaesī-u-ī or quaesi-ī, quaesī-tum// (= /kwairi ~ kwair/ and /kwaisi:/); \\ //hauri-ō// “drain”, //haurī-re// “drain”, //hau-s-ī, haus-tum// (= /hauri:/ and /haus/).
 +
 +    * //nōsc-ō// “know”, //nosce-re, nōu-ī, nō-tum// (= /nōsk/ and /nō/); \\ //cognosc-ō// “get to know”, //cognosce-re,cognō-u-ī, cogni-tum//; \\ //ignosc-ō//  “forgive”, //ignosce-re, ignō-u-ī, ignō-tum//. \\ //crēsc-ō// “increase”, //crēsc-is, crē-u-ī, crē-tum// (= /kre:sk/ and /kre:/); \\ //suēsc-ō// “be wont”, //suē-u-ī, suē-tus// (= /suēsk/and /suē/); \\ //(ad)olēsc-ō// “grow up”, //adolē-u-ī, adultum//; \\ //quiēsc-ō// “rest”, //quiē-u-ī, quiē-tum//. \\ //pāsc-ō// “feed”, //pā-u-ī, pās-tum// (= /pāsk/ and /pā/).
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with a suppletive stem:
 +
 +    * //toll-ō// “pick up”, //tolle-re, sustul-ī, sublā-tum//. \\ //fer-ō// “carry”, //fer-s, tul-ī, lātum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Defective verbs, the signifier of which is always constituted by a morphological unit of //Perfectum//:
 +
 +    * //coep-ī// “I began”, //coep-is-tī, coep-is-se//; \\ //memin-ī// “I remember”, //memin-is-tī, memin-is-se//; \\ //ōd-ī //“I hate”, //ōd-is-tī, ōd-is-se//.
 +
 +
 +    * • Semi-deponent verbs, which always add a Passive morphological unit to the //Perfectum// morpheme:  
 + 
 +    * //aude-ō// “dare”, //au-s-us su-m//; \\  //gaude-ō// “rejoice”, //gāuī-s-us su-m// ; \\ //sole-ō// “be wont”, //soli-t-us su-m//; \\ //fīd-ō// “trust”, //fīde-re, fī-s-us sum//.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * • Verbs with active and deponent forms fairly equally distributed:
 +
 +    * //mere-ō// “I deserve” , //merē-re, mer-u-ī, meri-tum// or //mere-or// “I deserve”, //merē-rī, meri-t-us su-m // «mériter».
 +
 +
 +
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
 \\ \\
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou 
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin8|Aller au § 8.]]       
 +