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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin6 [2015/10/30 20:49]
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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin6 [2016/01/27 18:03] (Version actuelle)
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-Finally, the neuter singular nominative is the one special feature with its segment //-ud//, which we find, of course, in the accusative. But that is not so suprising; //istud// can be the phonetical realization of /ist-od/, if we assume the neutralization of the opposition /o/ ~ /u/ in final syllable closed by an apicodental consonant . But if the neuter //ist-ud// corresponds thus to //qu-od// and //h-o-c// (realization of /h-od-k/, why does the //o// of //qu-od// remain? Because it is after a labiovelar consonant, which needs a differentiation and excludes all development of an //u//, which would turn it into a simply velar (cf. //quis// and //cuius//, //cui//, or //loquor// and //locutus//).+Finally, the neuter singular nominative is the one special feature with its segment //-ud//, which we find, of course, in the accusative. But that is not so suprising; //istud// can be the phonetical realization of /ist-od/, if we assume the neutralization of the opposition /o/ ~ /u/ in final syllable closed by an apicodental consonant((Cf. //tempus, por-is// « time », //caput, pit-is// “head”, or //iecur, iec(in)or-is//, "liver",))  . But if the neuter //ist-ud// corresponds thus to //qu-od// and //h-o-c// (realization of /h-od-k/, why does the //o// of //qu-od// remain? Because it is after a labiovelar consonant, which needs a differentiation and excludes all development of an //u//, which would turn it into a simply velar (cf. //quis// and //cuius//, //cui//, or //loquor// and //locutus//).
  
    
Ligne 351: Ligne 351:
  
  
-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + Plural ^ ^ | +^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + Plural ^ ^ | 
-^NOM. | ^//ist-e// | //ist-a// | //ist-ud// | | //ist-ī// | //ist-ae// |//ist-a// | +^NOM. |//ist-e// | //ist-a// | //ist-ud// | | //ist-ī// | //ist-ae// |//ist-a// | 
-^GEN. ist-īus ist-īus ist-īus ist-ōrum  ist-ārum ist-ōrum +^GEN. | //ist-īus// | //ist-īus// | //ist-īus// | | //ist-ōrum // | //ist-ārum// | //ist-ōrum//| 
-^DAT. ist-ī ist-ī ist-ī ist-īs ist-īs ist-īs +^DAT. | //ist-ī// | //ist-ī//| //ist-ī// | | //ist-īs// | //ist-īs// | //ist-īs// | 
-^ABL. ist-ō ist-ā ist-ō ist-īs ist-īs ist-īs +^ABL. | //ist-ō// | //ist-ā// | //ist-ō// | | //ist-īs// | //ist-īs// | //ist-īs// | 
-^ACC. ist-um ist-am ist-ud ist-ōs ist-ās ist-a+^ACC. | //ist-um// | //ist-am// | //ist-ud// | | //ist-ōs// | //ist-ās// |//ist-a// |
  
  
  
 +This morpheme //iste// has a variation with the demonstrative enclitic particle //-c(e)//, which  is declined throughout like //h-i-c, h-ae-c, h-o-c//, //i. e.// with  a singular feminine nominative and a plural neuter nominative //ist-ae-c// like //h-ae-c//, but unlike //ista//. This allomorph /ist…ke/ is reduced to /ist…k/, only when the phonem /k/ is possible in word final, //i. e.// after vowel or nasal consonant.
  
  
 +Declension of //ist-i-c, ist-ae-c, ist-u-c// :
  
  
-                +^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + Plural ^ ^ | 
-This morpheme iste has a variation with the demonstrative enclitic particle -c(e), which  is declined throughout like h-i-c, h-ae-c, h-o-c, ie. with  a singular feminine nominative and a plural neuter nominative ist-ae-c like h-ae-c, but unlike ista. This allomorph /ist…keis reduced to /ist…k/, only when the phonem /k/ is possible in word final, i. e. after vowel or nasal consonant.   +^NOM| //ist-i-c// //ist-ae-c// | //ist-u-c (ist-o-c)// | | //ist-ī-c// | //ist-ae-c// | //ist-ae-c// | 
-           + Plural +^GEN. | //ist-īus-ce// | //ist-īus-ce// | //ist-īus-ce// | | //ist-ōrun-c// | //ist-ārun-c// | // ist-ōrun-c// | 
-NOM. ist-i-c ist-ae-c ist-u-c (ist-o-c) ist-ī-c ist-ae-c ist-ae-c +^DAT. | //ist-ī-c// | //ist-ī-c// | //ist-ī-c// | | //ist-īs-ce// | //ist-īs-ce// | //ist-īs-ce// | 
-GEN. ist-īus-ce ist-īus-ce ist-īus-ce ist-ōrun-c  ist-ārun-c ist-ōrun-c +^ABL.| //ist-ō-c// | //ist-ā-c// | //ist-ō-c// | | //ist-īs-ce// | //ist-īs-ce// | //ist-īs-ce// | 
-DAT. ist-ī-c ist-ī-c ist-ī-c ist-īs-ce ist-īs-ce ist-īs-ce +^ACC. | //ist-un-c// | //ist-an-c// | //ist-u-c (ist-o-c)// | | //ist-ōs-ce// | //ist-ās-ce// |  //ist-ae-c// |
-ABL. ist-ō-c ist-ā-c ist-ō-c ist-īs-ce ist-īs-ce ist-īs-ce +
-ACC. ist-un-c ist-an-c ist-u-c (ist-o-c) ist-ōs-ce ist-ās-ce ist-ae-c+
  
-    Declension of ist-i-c, ist-ae-c, ist-u-c+    
  
  
 +**The determiner ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud “that, his”** is declined exactly like //ist-e, ist-a, ist-ud//; outside the singular masculine and neuter nominatives and the singular genitives and datives, its caual segments belong to the first and second declension; and //ille// is the realization of /ill-i/ like //ist-e//, //ill-ud//, the realization of /ill-od/, like //istud//.
  
  
 +Declension of //ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud// :
  
-The determiner ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud “that, his” is declined exactly like ist-e, ist-a, ist-ud; outside the singular masculine and neuter nominatives and the singular genitives and datives, its caual segments belong to the first and second declension; and ille is the realization of /ill-i/ like ist-e, ill-ud, the realization of /ill-od/, like istud. 
-           + Plural 
-NOM. ill-e ill-a ill-ud ill-ī ill-ae ill-a 
-GEN. ill-īus ill-īus ill-īus ill-ōrum ill-ārum ill-ōrum 
-DAT. ill-ī ill-ī ill-ī ill-īs ill-īs ill-īs 
-ABL. ill-ō ill-ā ill-ō ill-īs ill-īs ill-īs 
-ACC. ill-um ill-am ill-ud ill-ōs ill-ās ill-a 
  
  
 +^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + Plural ^ ^ |
 +^NOM. | //ill-e// | //ill-a// | //ill-ud// | | //ill-ī// | //ill-ae// | //ill-a// |
 +^GEN. | //ill-īus// | //ill-īus// | //ill-īus// | | //ill-ōrum// | //ill-ārum// | //ill-ōrum// |
 +^DAT. | //ill-ī// | //ill-ī// | //ill-ī// | | //ill-īs// | //ill-īs// | //ill-īs// |
 +^ABL. | //ill-ō// | //ill-ā// | //ill-ō// | | //ill-īs// | //ill-īs// | //ill-īs// |
 +^ACC. | //ill-um// | //ill-am// | //ill-ud// | | //ill-ōs// | //ill-ās// | //ill-a// |
  
-  
  
-  
  
-                      Declension of ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud 
-For ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud has, like iste, a variation with the demonstrative enclitic particule      -c(e): nom. sing. ill-i-c, ill-ae-c, ill-u-c (ill-o-c), etc. nom. plur. ill-ī-c (ill-isce : Plaut., Most. 510 and 935), ill-ae-c, ill-ae-c, etc.  
-The determiner ips-e, ips-a, ips-um “self, himself”, outside the singular masculine nominative in -e and the genitive in -īus and dative in -ī of the declension pronominal, only uses casual segments of the first and second declension: 
  
-           + Plural +For //ill-e, ill-a, ill-ud// has, like //iste//, a variation with the demonstrative enclitic particule //-c(e)//: nom. sing. //ill-i-c, ill-ae-c, ill-u-c (ill-o-c)//, //etc.// nom. plur. //ill-ī-c// (//ill-isce// : Plaut., //Most.// 510 and 935), //ill-ae-c, ill-ae-c//, //etc.//
-NOM. ips-e ips-a ips-um ips-ī ips-ae ips-+
-GEN. ips-īus ips-īus ips-īus ips-ōrum ips-ārum ips-ōrum +
-DAT. ipsips-ī ips-ī ips-īs ips-īs ips-īs +
-ABL. ips-ō ips-ā ips-ō ips-īs ips-īs ips-īs +
-ACC. ips-um ips-am ips-um ips-ōs ips-ās ips-a+
  
 + 
 +**The determiner //ips-e, ips-a, ips-um// “self, himself”**, outside the singular masculine nominative in //-e// and the genitive in //-īus// and dative in //-ī// of the declension pronominal, only uses casual segments of the first and second declension:
  
 +Declension of determiner //ips-e, -a, -um// :
  
  
 +^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ + Plural^ ^ |
 +^NOM. | //ips-e// | //ips-a// | //ips-um// | | //ips-ī// | //ips-ae// | //ips-a//|
 +^GEN. | //ips-īus// | //ips-īus// | //ips-īus// | | //ips-ōrum // | //ips-ārum// | //ips-ōrum//|
 +^DAT. | //ips-ī// | //ips-ī// | //ips-ī// | | //ips-īs// | //ips-īs// | //ips-īs// |
 +^ABL. | //ips-ō// | //ips-ā// | //ips-ō// | | //ips-īs// | //ips-īs// | //ips-īs// |
 +^ACC. | //ips-um// | //ips-am// | //ips-um// | | //ips-ōs// | //ips-ās// | //ips-a// |
  
 +       
  
 +Originally, //-pse// is an invariable particle combined with the determiner //is//, hence in archaic authors //eapse// 
  
-       Declension of determiner ips-e, -a, -um+    * Plaut., //Mil.// 141: //nemo nisi eapse// \\  “nobody else but herself”),  
 +     
 +    * Plaut., //Mil.// 1069: //eampse//,  
 +      
 +    * Plaut., //Curc.// 538: //eōpse// : //sed eopse illo//((Plaut., //Curc.// 537-538: //Non edepol nunc ego te mediocre macto infortunio,// \\ //Sed eopse illo quo mactare sloe quoi nil debeo// \\ “It is not the ordinary beating which I am going to apply to  you, but the beating itself as I apply to those to whom I owe nothing”.)) ,  
 +  
 +//eumpse//((Cic., //Cato// 25 : //Sentire ea aetate eumpse esse odiosum alteri// \\ “to sense that being old, we are then tiresome for the others” \\ (it is a quotation of Caecilius Statius).))  //etc.// and even in: 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Liv. 40,52,6 : //inspectante eopse Antiocho// \\ “in the presence of Antiochus himself”.  
 +      
 +But, the particle was first declined on the model of //ist-e, ist-a// or even //bon-usbon-a//. Plautus frequently uses //ips-us// (Plaut., //Mil.// 1389  and 1060; //Merc.// 56, 481, 598, and 759; etc.). 
 +  
 + 
 +    * **6.6. Other indefinite or interrogative determiners** 
 + 
 + 
 +There are in Latin other indefinite determiners than the compunds of //qu-is//. They have all the genitive in //-ius//, and the dative in //-ī//. 
 + 
 + 
 +**//Ali-us, ali-a, ali-ud// “other, another”**, is the only one having a nominative or accusative neuter in //-ud//, like the demonstratives //ill-ud// and //ist-ud//. Its genitive //al-īus// (Gell. 17,5,14) is rare, and commonly replaced by //alter-īus//, and the dative //ali-ī// is often contracted in //al-ī//. In the spoken language, these forms of the pronominal declension are even replaced by forms of the first or second declension: genitive masc. and neut. //ali-ī// :   
 + 
 +    * Varr., //L.L.// 9,67: //alii generis uinum//, \\ "wine of another quality”  
 + 
 + 
 +and fem. //ali-ae//:   
 + 
 +    * Cic., //div.// 2,30: //aliae pecudis iecur//, \\ “the liver of any animal”;  
 +      
 +    * Lucr. 3,918, 
 +    
 +     
 +dative masc. //ali-ō//:   
 + 
 +    * Rhet. //Her.// 2,19: //alio iudici//, \\ “to any judge",  
 + 
 + 
 +and fem. //ali-ae//  
 + 
 +    * Plaut., //Mil.// 802: //rei nulli aliae//, \\ “for nobody else”.  
 + 
 + 
 +**//Alter, alter-a, alter-um// “one or other (of two), the other, the second”**, genitive //alter-īus// and dative //alter-ī// for the three genders; but there is an informal form for the dative fem. //alter-ae// (Plaut., //Rud.// 750; Ter., //Phorm.// 928; and even  
 + 
 +    * Caes., //Gal.// 5,27,5: //ne qua legio alterae legioni subsidio uenire posset//, \\  “ so that no legion cannot give another legion assistance”. 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Caes., //Gal.// 5,18,2 : //ad alteram fluminis ripam//, \\  “on the other bank of the river” 
 + 
 +    * Cic., //Verr.// 2,75: //dicit unus et alter breuiter//, \\  “a witness briefly speaks, then a second”.  
 + 
 +Like //alter//, the other determiners in //-ter// imply that what is designated is one of two. Thus, the interrogative //uter, utr-a, utr-um// “which… of the two?”, “which person… of the two?” (gen. //utr-īus//, dat. //utr-ī//) 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Liv. 10,14,2: //uter ad utrum bellum dux idoneus magis esset// \\  “which general was the best of two and for which of the two wars”, 
 + 
 + 
 +and the two indefinites //uterque, utr-a-que, utr-um-que// “each of two”, or “both” (gen. //utr-īus-que, dat. utr-ī-que//), and //neuter, neutr-a, neutr-um// “not one nor the other, neither” (gen. //neutr-īus//, dat. //neutr-ī//): 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Cic., rep. 3,4 : //in utramque partem disserere// \\ “to debate in the both directions, the pros and cons” 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Liv. 1,2,2 : //neutra acies laeta ex ei certamine abiit// \\  "not one of both parties came out of this meeting to advantage". 
 + 
 + 
 +//Null-us, -a, -um// “not any, no” is above all an indefinite determiner  
 +  
 + 
 +    * Cic., //Verr.// 2,40: // nullo modo, nullo pacto// \\ “in no way” 
 +  
 +   
 +    * Cic., //Q. fr.// 1,2,15: //adolescens nullius consilli// \\ “a young man of no importance”;
  
-Originally, -pse is an invariable particle combined with the determiner is, hence in archaic authors eapse (Plaut., Mil. 141: nemo nisi eapse “nobody else but herself”), eampse (Plaut., Mil. 1069), eōpse (Plaut., Curc. 538: sed eopse illo ), eumpse  etc.  and even in Liv. 40,52,6 : inspectante eopse Antiocho “in the presence of Antiochus himself”. But, the particle was first declined on the model of ist-e, ist-a or even bon-us, bon-a. Plautus frequently uses ips-us (Plaut., Mil. 1389  and 1060; Merc. 56, 481, 598, and 759; etc.).  
  
- f. Other indefinite or interrogative determiners 
-There are in Latin other indefinite determiners than the compunds of qu-is. They have all the genitive in -ius, and the dative in -ī. 
-Ali-us, ali-a, ali-ud “other, another”, is the only one having a nominative or accusative neuter in -ud, like the demonstratives ill-ud and ist-ud. Its genitive al-īus (Gell. 17,5,14) is rare, and commonly replaced by alter-īus, and the dative ali-ī is often contracted in al-ī. In the spoken language, these forms of the pronominal declension are even replaced by forms of the first or second declension: genitive masc. and neut. ali-ī (Varr., L.L. 9,67: alii generis uinum "wine of another quality”) and fem. ali-ae (Cic., div. 2,30: aliae pecudis iecur “the liver of any animal”; Lucr. 3,918), dative masc. ali-ō (Rhet. Her. 2,19: alio iudici “to any judge"), and fem. ali-ae (Plaut., Mil. 802: rei nulli aliae “for nobody else”).  
-Alter, alter-a, alter-um “one or other (of two), the other, the second”, genitive alter-īus and dative alter-ī for the three genders; but there is an informal form for the dative fem. alter-ae (Plaut., Rud. 750; Ter., Phorm. 928; and even Caes., Gal. 5,27,5: ne qua legio alterae legioni subsidio uenire posset “ so that no legion cannot give another legion assistance”). 
- ad alteram fluminis ripam (Caes., Gal. 5,18,2) “on the other bank of the river” 
- dicit unus et alter breuiter (Cic., Verr. 2,75) “a witness briefly speaks, then a second”.  
-Like alter, the other determiners in -ter imply that what is designated is one of two. Thus, the interrogative uter, utr-a, utr-um “which… of the two?”, “which person… of the two?” (gen. utr-īus, dat. utr-ī) 
-uter ad utrum bellum dux idoneus magis esset (Liv. 10,14,2) “which general was the best of two and for which of the two wars”, 
-and the two indefinites uterque, utr-a-que, utr-um-que “each of two”, or “both” (gen. utr-īus-que, dat. utr-ī-que), and neuter, neutr-a, neutr-um “not one nor the other, neither” (gen. neutr-īus, dat. neutr-ī): 
-in utramque partem disserere (Cic., rep. 3,4) “to debate in the both directions, the pros and cons” 
-neutra acies laeta ex ei certamine abiit (Liv. 1,2,2) "not one of both parties came out of this meeting to advantage". 
-Null-us, -a, -um “not any, no” is above all an indefinite determiner  
- nullo modo, nullo pacto “in no way” (Cic., Verr. 2,40)  
-adolescens nullius consilli (Cic., Q. fr. 1,2,15) “a young man of no importance”; 
 but it can function also as a NP: but it can function also as a NP:
-ut nullo egeat (Cic., Lael. 30 “he doesn’t need anybody”;  + 
-quod ante id tempus accidit nulli (Caes., Gall. 2,35,3“which was not happened to anybody until then”; + 
-In that position, Latin will prefer to use the variants nēmō “nobody, no one”, and nihil “not anything, nothing”, the declension of which shows clearly the relationship with the determiners: +    * Cic., //Lael.// 30: //ut nullo egeat// \\  “he doesn’t need anybody”; 
-NOM. nēmō nihil +    
-GEN. null-īus null-īus re-ī +  
-DAT. nēmin-ī null-ī re-ī +    * Caes., //Gall.// 2,35,3: //quod ante id tempus accidit nulli// \\  “which was not happened to anybody until then”; 
-ABL. null-ō null-ā rē + 
-ACC. nēmin-em nihil + 
- Declension of nēmō and nihil +In that position, Latin will prefer to use the variants //nēmō// “nobody, no one”, and //nihil// “not anything, nothing”, the declension of which shows clearly the relationship with the determiners: 
-Incidentally, nēmō is often used as a simple determiner by Plautus:  + 
-Nemo homo umquam ita arbitratust (Plaut.Persa 211) “nobody ever thought  so”. + 
-Belong also to the class of determiners, tot-us, -a, -um “the whole of, all”, sol-us, -a, -um “alone, only one”, and unu-us, -a, -um “one, a single”, which have a Genitive in -īus, and a dative in -ī: +Declension of //nēmō// and //nihil//: 
-Hinc totum odium, hinc omnis offensio (Cic.Flach. 54) “hence all her antipathy , hence all her grudge” + 
- uniuersum totius urbis incendium (Cic., Syll. 19“the general fire of all the city".  + 
-In conclusion, we can add to the morphological specific feature of the declension which we call the pronominal declension, namely the genitive in -īus and the dative in -ī, the syntactical feature of concerning only some constituents which are some members of the determiners’ class, i. e. some immediate constituents of an exocentric NP.+^ ^ ^ |  
 +^NOM. | //nēmō// | //nihil// | 
 +^GEN. | //null-īus// | //null-īus re-ī// | 
 +^DAT. | //nēmin-ī// | //null-ī re-ī// | 
 +^ABL. | //null-ō// | //null-ā rē// | 
 +^ACC. | //nēmin-em// | //nihil// | 
 +  
 +Incidentally, //nēmō// is often used as a simple determiner by Plautus:  
 + 
 + 
 +    * Plaut., //Persa// 211: //Nemo homo umquam ita arbitratust//\\  “nobody ever thought  so”. 
 + 
 + 
 +Belong also to the class of determiners, //tot-us, -a, -um// “the whole of, all”, //sol-us, -a, -um// “alone, only one”, and //unu-us, -a, -um// “one, a single”, which have a Genitive in //-īus//, and a dative in ////
 + 
 + 
 +    * Cic., //Flach.// 54: //Hinc totum odium, hinc omnis offensio//\\  “hence all her antipathy , hence all her grudge” 
 + 
 + 
 +    * Cic., //Syll.// 19: //uniuersum totius urbis incendium//, \\  “the general fire of all the city".  
 + 
 + 
 +In conclusion, we can add to the morphological specific feature of the declension which we call the pronominal declension, namely the genitive in //-īus// and the dative in //-ī,// the syntactical feature of concerning only some constituents which are some members of the determiners’ class, //i. e.// some immediate constituents of an exocentric NP. 
 + 
 + 
 + 
 +\\  
 +\\  
 +\\  
 +  
 + 
 +\\ 
 +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou  
 +[[:dictionnaire: The morphology of classical latin7|Aller au § 7.]]